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Can Blockchain Gaming Drive Cryptocurrency Adoption?

Can Blockchain Gaming Drive Cryptocurrency Adoption?
The gaming industry, with its approximately 2.5 billion gamers worldwide, is a lucrative target and an immense field of application for blockchain itself, Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies that could no doubt give a mighty push toward taking and making the technology mainstream. Honestly, this is not quite a news as the efforts to establish cryptocurrencies in the entertainment sector have gone a long way, with varying degrees of success.
by StealthEX
What they were, how it fared, and where things are going now – these questions deserve their own inquiry. So let’s take a look at how gaming facilitates cryptocurrency adoption, in what ways, and whether exposing the blockchain tech to a user base of a third of the world’s population would help oil the wheels of this sportster in a major way and ultimately cause a tectonic shift in the gaming industry itself.

A Little Bit of History

As Bitcoin kicked off in late 2008, with its first transaction hitting, or effectively starting, the blockchain in early January of 2009, it had taken well over two years till the cryptocurrency got involved in online gambling. It was the now-defunct mobile poker platform, Switchpoker, a developer of an online poker room that started to accept Bitcoin as a deposit and payment option. You can still find a topic on Bitcointalk.org about this news dated back to November 23, 2011.
In April 2012, Erik Voorhees, an American entrepreneur and early Bitcoin adopter, founded Satoshi Dice, arguably the oldest online cryptocasino on the block, which is still pretty much alive today, although Voorhees sold it in a year. What makes it truly intriguing is the fact that during its early years the casino was generating half of all the transactions on the Bitcoin network. In short, online gambling was critically important in Bitcoin’s infancy years as it helped promote cryptocurrency awareness that led to future growth and expansion into other areas.
Some folks are certainly going to argue that gambling is not the same thing as gaming. The commonly accepted view is that gaming is based on skill while gambling on chance. We won’t debate over this point. However, as every poker player knows, the outcome of a poker game depends not only on luck, but also on skill and expertise. Put simply, there are large gray areas and overlaps. All things considered, our exposition would be missing a big chunk of significant history without giving due credit to gambling and how it helped Bitcoin adoption.
Now that online gambling is off our chest, we can safely turn to gaming as it is understood in the industry, and look at how it helped the blockchain space. One of the first uses of Bitcoin in a major game that we are aware of started in 2014 with the launch of BitQuest, a Minecraft server that used Bitcoin for in-game transactions. Within the gaming environment you could buy valuable in-game stuff from other users with the so-called bits, small fractions of a Bitcoin, and earn them by completing in-game tasks or challenges like killing local monsters.
BitQuest closed the server in summer of 2019, and its brand name now belongs to a different entity not involved with gaming, but it still produced an impact. In essence, this effort successfully demonstrated how a cryptocurrency, in this case Bitcoin, can be used in lieu of a native in-game currency that players can earn, buy and spend as well as withdraw. This has serious implications for two main reasons. First, Bitcoin, unlike any other purely in-game currency, has uses outside the game and its ecosystem, and, second, its supply cannot be manipulated by the game developers, which makes the game by far more fair and square.
Needless to say, the example that BitQuest had set encouraged other market participants to look into Bitcoin as an alternative option for in-game currencies. Another popular Minecraft server, PlayMC, also introduced Bitcoin into its world in 2015, but ceased the operation just two years later. There were a few other servers experimenting with altcoins, more specifically, Dogecoin, but most of them disappeared from the scene shortly thereafter, failing to attract enough die-hard Minecraft fans.

What Has Changed?

With the arrival of smart contract-enabled blockchains such as Ethereum, EOS and TRON, the phrase “blockchain gaming” has taken on a more literal meaning as these blockchains allow games to be designed and played entirely on-chain in much the same manner trades are made on a decentralized exchange. While TRON stands for “The Real-time Operating system Nucleus”, there is an obvious reference to a once popular arcade game based on a titular 1982 science fiction film that ultimately garnered a cult following.
CryptoKitties is likely the most popular game ever released in the Ethereum ecosystem and probably in the whole crypto space so far. Its test version was made available on October 19, 2017, and it was an instant success. By the end of 2017 over 200,000 people signed up for the game, spending over $20 million in Ether. We won’t delve into its “gameplay” as it is beyond the scope of this article, and most certainly you are well familiar with it anyway. But what we absolutely should write about is the effect it made and the repercussions it produced.
It could be said that CryptoKitties was to the Ethereum blockchain what Satoshi Dice had been to Bitcoin in the early days of crypto. At the peak of its popularity the game reportedly accounted for 20-25% of all Ethereum’s traffic that clogged the entire Ethereum network, with transaction fees skyrocketing. No wonder lots of people got pissed off with this turn of events. However, despite all the rage and fury, CryptoKitties amply demonstrated what a success means in the blockchain gaming field, how it looks and feels in practice.
It is hard to estimate how much CryptoKitties contributed to cryptocurrency adoption. But given that a few hundred thousand people got involved in this game alone and many more with dozens of blockchain games that it has spawned, like Etherbots, Gods Unchained, The Six Dragons, etc, this indisputable triumph surely counts as a massive contribution by any definition or metric. Moreover, it also revealed the weaknesses of the contemporary blockchain solutions and what exactly should be done to overcome them.
Evolution never goes linearly. In fact, it generally doesn’t go in curves, circles, or zig zags, either. It always moves along very diverse routes, directions and entire dimensions like plants and animals, viruses and bacteria, and, well, dinosaurs and mammals. The evolution of gaming in crypto space is no different. СryptoKitties and other games share essentially the same tech under the hood – building games on some advanced general-purpose blockchain such as Ethereum. But it is not the only front that crypto gaming has been advancing on, nor is it the only way to introduce gaming to cryptocurrencies, and vice versa.
A more recent approach is based on designing either a standalone cryptocurrency or a token on a smart contract-enabled blockchain to be used across many games that support it as an in-game currency. As a result, gamers can enjoy true ownership of their in-game assets (the so-called non-fungible tokens, or NFTs), safe item trading outside the game, and cross-game compatibility. This path has been taken by such projects as Enjin (ENJ), GAME Credits (GAME), Decentraland (MANA), WAX (WAXP) and others, with their respective cryptocurrencies fueling a range of games.
A somewhat different avenue is taken by Funfair (FUN), Chromia (CHR) and Lucid Sight, which are offering platforms that blockchain games can be built on. Thus, Lucid Sight’s Scarcity Engine is focused more on game creators than end users, that is to say, gamers, allowing developers to integrate blockchain into their games. It aims to obliterate the difference between blockchain-based games and traditional gaming platforms. Funfair, on the other hand, leans more toward creating custom-built blockchain casinos, with its FUN token as a casino “chip”. So much for no more gambling, huh.
Our account of events would be incomplete if we didn’t mention yet another attempt to make use of Minecraft for the purpose of introducing cryptocurrencies to the gaming public. This time, a new Minecraft mod called SatoshiQuest has emerged. To participate in it, the gamers pay $1 in Bitcoin and get one in-game life. The pooled coins make up the loot, and the challenge is to find a minimum of 400 key fragments into which the keys to the Bitcoin wallet containing the prize are divided. And who said that evolution doesn’t loop?

Challenges and Future Prospects

The knockout popularity of СryptoKitties has clearly shown the scale of cryptocurrency mass adoption that blockchain gaming can trigger. As the game developers themselves put it, their “goal is to drive mainstream adoption of blockchain technology”. They believe that “the technology has immense benefits for consumers, but for those benefits to be realized, it needs to be experienced to be understood”. Speaking more broadly, as more people start using cryptocurrencies for gaming, they may eventually become interested in using their coins for purposes other than playing one game or another.
With that said, it is now as clear that there are two main barriers on the way there. The first is the limitations of the blockchain tech itself that essentially limits blockchain gaming to NFTs, in-game currencies, streamlined payments, and similar stuff. This is mostly a technical challenge anyway, and we could realistically expect it to be solved sooner or later. The other issue is applicable to the gaming industry as a whole. People en masse would only play games that are truly engaging and immersive, technical issues aside.
So the bottom line is that we need the convergence of these two vectors to make blockchain a dominating force in the gaming industry. First, the blockchain tech should have the capacity for running multiplayer games that major video game developers like Blizzard, Valve and Ubisoft produce, no trade-offs here. Then, we actually need the games like Warcraft, Counter-Strike or Far Cry that can be played on blockchain, to make it matter. Only after we get there, the gaming industry will likely become a primary driver behind cryptocurrency adoption.
What are your thoughts on how gaming facilitates cryptocurrency adoption? Tell us your ideas in the comments below.
And remember if you need to exchange your coins StealthEX is here for you. We provide a selection of more than 250 coins and constantly updating the list so that our customers will find a suitable option. Our service does not require registration and allows you to remain anonymous. Why don’t you check it out? Just go to StealthEX and follow these easy steps:
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Follow us on Medium, Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit to get StealthEX.io updates and the latest news about the crypto world. For all requests message us via [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
The views and opinions expressed here are solely those of the author. Every investment and trading move involves risk. You should conduct your own research when making a decision.
Original article was posted on https://stealthex.io/blog/2020/09/22/can-blockchain-gaming-drive-cryptocurrency-adoption/
submitted by Stealthex_io to StealthEX [link] [comments]

I am going to take Bitcoin & Cryptocurrencies mainstream

I am the founder of a very new bootstrapped startup called BitYOLO. BitYOLO is started with a very simple goal of getting people in the habit of using bitcoin. Just like any national currency, once people have bitcoin in their wallets and hands, they are bound to use it.
And once they use it and understand how easy it makes their life, they will spread the message, getting more people to use it. And for that, I believe giving people Bitcoin as rewards is the best way to go forward.
BitYOLO is an online service that earns you Bitcoin everytime you shop, search, find, listen, learn, subscribe online. The website is www.bityolo.io .We do this by sharing a part of our earnings, usually 40% to 82% with our users.
We earn money through affiliate earnings from our partner online stores. As of right now, we have pre approval from 200+ online stores which will be LIVE on our service.
Right now, we are in testing phase of our product. BitYOLO will go LIVE in november 2019. For expenses, I have spent all of my savings in the development of this project.
I am the sole full-time team member as of now, based out of Singapore & India, Apart from me, I have some friends and previous colleagues who are working with me on Pro-Bono basis and some freelance developers who are creating the platform.
Our Early Access Program is a multi referral program. In which you earn money in bitcoins for taking part in the program and referring your friends.
All of the amounts in BTC will be transferred to the user’s wallet of choice.
We are also LIVE on product hunt at www.producthunt.com/posts/bityolo
I urge all of you to please ask me questions and any doubts you may have.
I am starting to post FAQs on my end in the comments below, I request all of you to take part in our referral program and help spread word on how Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies are a better option. Instead of doing an ICO and taking money from users, I am commiting money to the Early Access users in the form of Bitcoin.
About Me.
Hello Reddit community. My name is Shamik Sharma and I've been a Blockchain professional for past 3 years and have been HODL'ing Bitcoin and Ethereum since 2015. I have previously worked as marketing manager for LALA World and reddit community manager for multiple blockchain projects. I have also organised 3 global blockchain events by the name of Blocksocial in Canada, Dubai & Singapore.
submitted by tquinn28 to btc [link] [comments]

J.P. Morgan Early Look at the Market – Fri 10.6.17 **PLEASE DO NOT FORWARD THIS DOCUMENT**

J.P. Morgan Early Look at the Market – Fri 10.6.17
*PLEASE DO NOT FORWARD THIS DOCUMENT*

Morning Levels

Trading Update

Top Headlines for Friday

Identifying risks – what could go wrong?

Macro Update

Calendar of events to watch for the week of Mon Oct 9

Catalysts – big events to watch over the coming months

Opinion/Interesting-but-not-immediately-impactful/intra-day boredom reading

Full catalyst list

  • Mon Oct 9 – China Caixin services PMI for Sept (Sun night/Mon morning)
  • Mon Oct 9 – German industrial production for Aug. 2amET.
  • Mon Oct 9 – earnings after the European close: LVMH.
  • Mon Oct 9 – Columbus Day holiday in the US (equities will be open while fixed income is closed).
  • Tues Oct 10 – German trade balance for Aug. 2amET.
  • Tues Oct 10 – analyst meetings: TECD, Santander, WDAY, WMT
  • Tues Oct 10 – PG shareholder meeting
  • Tues Oct 10 – earnings after the close: CUDA
  • Wed Oct 11 – US JOLTs report for Aug. 10amET.
  • Wed Oct 11 – Fed minutes from the Sept 20 meeting (2pmET).
  • Wed Oct 11 – analyst meetings: KR
  • Wed Oct 11 – earnings before the open: BLK, DAL, FAST, OZRK.
  • Thurs Oct 12 – Eurozone industrial production for Aug. 5amET.
  • Thurs Oct 12 – US PPI for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Thurs Oct 12 – analyst meetings: BOX, HPQ, LSCC, WDC.
  • Thurs Oct 12 – earnings before the open: C, DPZ, JPM, LNN, Sky PLC, Tata Consultancy.
  • Thurs Oct 12 – earnings after the close: EXFO
  • Fri Oct 13 – China imports/exports for Sept (Thurs night/Fri morning)
  • Fri Oct 13 – US CPI for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Fri Oct 13 – US retail sales for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Fri Oct 13 – US Michigan Sentiment for Oct. 10amET.
  • Fri Oct 13 – US business inventories for Aug. 10amET.
  • Fri Oct 13 – analyst meetings: SAFM
  • Fri Oct 13 – earnings before the open: BAC, DRFG, FHN, FRC, JBHT, Man Group, PNC, WFC.
  • Mon Oct 16 – China CPI/PPI for Sept (Sun night/Mon morning)
  • Mon Oct 16 – Eurozone trade balance for Aug. 5amET.
  • Mon Oct 16 – earnings before the open: SCHW
  • Mon Oct 16 – earnings after the close: BRO, IEX, NFLX, Rio Tinto
  • Tues Oct 17 – Eurozone Sept auto registrations. 2amET.
  • Tues Oct 17 – German ZEW survey results for Oct. 5amET.
  • Tues Oct 17 – US import prices for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Tues Oct 17 – US industrial production for Sept. 9:15amET.
  • Tues Oct 17 – US NAHB housing index for Oct. 10amET.
  • Tues Oct 17 – earnings before the open: BMI, CMA, CSX, GS, GWW, HOG, JNJ, MS, Pearson, PLD, Remy Cointreau, UNH
  • Tues Oct 17 – earnings after the close: ADTN, BHP, CP, CREE, IBM, LRCX, NAVI.
  • Wed Oct 18 – US housing starts for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Oct 18 – US building permits fro Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Oct 18 – US Beige Book. 2pmET.
  • Wed Oct 18 – earnings before the open: ABT, Akzo Nobel, MTB, NTRS, USB
  • Wed Oct 18 – earnings after the close: AA, AXP, BHE, CCI, CCK, EBAY, LLNW, SLG, TCBI
  • Thurs Oct 19 – China Q3 GDP and Sept retail sales, IP, and FAI (Wed night/Thurs morning)
  • Thurs Oct 19 – US Leading Index for Sept. 10amET.
  • Thurs Oct 19 – earnings before the open: ADS, BBT, BK, DGX, DHR, GPC, KEY, Nestle, Pernod Ricard, PM, PPG, Publicis, RCI, Roche, SAP, SON, Thales, TRV, TSMC, TXT, Unilever, VZ, WBC.
  • Thurs Oct 19 – earnings after the close: ATHN, ISRG, LHO, MXIM, NCR, PBCT, WDFC, WERN.
  • Fri Oct 20 – US existing home sales for Sept. 10amET.
  • Fri Oct 20 – earnings before the open: Assa Abloy, BHGE, CFG, CLF, Daimler, DST, GE, GNTX, KSU, SLB, STI, SYF, TomTom, Volvo.
  • Mon Oct 23 – China Sept property prices (Sun night/Mon morning).
  • Mon Oct 23 – US Chicago Fed Activity Index for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Mon Oct 23 – earnings before the open: HAL, HAS, ITW, KMB, STT, VFC
  • Mon Oct 23 – earnings after the close: ARNC, CR, OI
  • Tues Oct 24 – Eurozone flash PMIs for Oct. 4amET.
  • Tues Oct 24 – US flash PMIs for Oct. 9:45amET.
  • Tues Oct 24 – earnings before the open: AMTD, Anglo American, BASF, BIIB, CAT, CLB, CNC, FITB, GLW, GM, INFY, LLY, LMT, MAS, MCD, MMM, Novartis, PCAR, PHM, PNR, R, RF, SAH, SHW, SWK, WAT, WDR.
  • Tues Oct 24 – earnings after the close: AKAM, AMP, CMG, COF, DFS, ESRX, IRBT, T, TSS, TXN.
  • Wed Oct 25 – US durable goods for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Oct 25 – US FHFA home price index for Aug. 9amET.
  • Wed Oct 25 – US new home sales for Sept. 10amET.
  • Wed Oct 25 – earnings before the open: ALK, ALLY, ANTM, Antofagasta, AOS, BA, BAX, Dassault Systemes, DPS, FCX, FLIR, Fresnillo, HBAN, Heineken, IP, IR, KO, LEA, LH, Lloyds Banking Group, NDAQ, NSC, NYCB, Peugeot, TMO, TUP, V, WBA, WEC.
  • Wed Oct 25 – earnings after the close: ABX, ACGL, AFL, AMGN, CLGX, DLR, FFIV, FTI, KIM, LSTR, NOW, ORLY, PKG, PLXS, RJF, TSCO, UNM, VAR, XLNX.
  • Thurs Oct 26 – US wholesale inventories for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Thurs Oct 26 – US advance goods trade balance for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Thurs Oct 26 – US pending home sales for Sept. 10amET.
  • Thurs Oct 26 – earnings before the open: Aixtron, ALLE, ALV, Anheuser Busch, APD, Bayer, BMY, BSX, BWA, CCMP, CELG, CHTR, CMCSA, CME, Deutsche Bank, ENTG, EQT, F, HLT, MMC, NEM, Nokia, ODFL, Santander, Schneider Electric, UNP, UPS, WM, XEL.
  • Thurs Oct 26 – earnings after the close: AIV, ATEN, CB, CDNS, EXPE, FLEX, FTNT, GILD, GOOG, HIG, INTC, LPLA, MSFT, NATI, PFG, SYK, VDSI, VRSN.
  • Fri Oct 27 – China Sept industrial profits (Thurs night/Fri morning).
  • Fri Oct 27 – US Q3 GDP, personal consumption, and core PCE for Q3. 8:30amET.
  • Fri Oct 27 – US Michigan Confidence numbers for Oct. 10amET.
  • Fri Oct 27 – earnings before the open: B, MRK, PSX, SC, TRU, Volkswagen, WY, XOM.
  • Mon Oct 30 – US personal income/spending and PCE for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Mon Oct 30 – US Dallas Fed index for Oct. 10:30amET.
  • Mon Oct 30 – analyst meetings: CSX
  • Mon Oct 30 – earnings before the open: HSBC
  • Mon Oct 30 – earnings after the close: AVB, CGNX, RE, RTEC, VNO
  • Tues Oct 31 – US Employment Cost Index for Q3. 8:30amET.
  • Tues Oct 31 – US Case-Shiller home price index for Aug. 9amET.
  • Tues Oct 31 – US Chicago PMI for Oct. 9:45amET.
  • Tues Oct 31 – US Conference Board Sentiment readings for Oct. 10amET.
  • Tues Oct 31 – earnings before the open: ADM, AET, Airbus, AMT, Barclays, BNP, CMI, ECL, GGP, K, MA, OSK, PFE, XYL.
  • Tues Oct 31 – earnings after the close: APC, CHRW, CXO, WFT, X
  • Wed Nov 1 – US ADP jobs report for Oct. 8:15amET.
  • Wed Nov 1 – US Markit Manufacturing PMI for Oct. 9:45amET.
  • Wed Nov 1 – US Manufacturing ISM for Oct. 10amET.
  • Wed Nov 1 – US construction spending report for Sept. 10amET.
  • Wed Nov 1 – US auto sales for Oct.
  • Wed Nov 1 – FOMC meeting decision. 2pmET.
  • Wed Nov 1 – earnings before the open: AGN, APO, CLX, EL, GRMN, HFC, Novo Nordisk, ORBK, Standard Chartered, TAP, TRI.
  • Wed Nov 1 – earnings after the close: ALL, BHF, BXP, CAVM, CSGS, FB, LNC, MANT, MET, MUSA, OXY, PRU, QCOM, ULTI, XPO.
  • Thurs Nov 2 – US nonfarm productivity and unit labor costs for Q3. 8:30amET.
  • Thurs Nov 2 – earnings before the open: ADP, AN, BCE, CI, Credit Suisse, DISCA, H, ICE, Royal Dutch Shell, Sanofi, Swiss Re, WRK.
  • Thurs Nov 2 – earnings after the close: AAPL, AIG, CBS, CRUS, FLR, HLF, RMAX, SBUX, UNIT.
  • Fri Nov 3 – US jobs report for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Fri Nov 3 – US trade balance for Sept. 8:30amET.
  • Fri Nov 3 – US factory orders and durable goods orders for Sept. 10amET.
  • Fri Nov 3 – US non-manufacturing ISM for Oct. 10amET.
  • Tues Nov 7 – US JOLTs jobs report for Sept. 10amET.
  • Tues Nov 7 – US consumer credit for Sept. 3pmET.
  • Thurs Nov 9 – US wholesale trade sales/inventories for Sept. 10amET.
  • Fri Nov 10 – US Michigan Confidence preliminary numbers for Nov. 10amET.
  • Tues Nov 14 – US PPI for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Nov 15 – US CPI for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Nov 15 – US Empire Manufacturing for Nov. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Nov 15 – US retail sales for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Nov 15 – US business inventories for Sept. 10amET.
  • Thurs Nov 16 – US import prices for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Thurs Nov 16 – US industrial production for Oct. 9:15amET.
  • Thurs Nov 16 – US NAHB housing index for Nov. 10amET.
  • Fri Nov 17 – US housing starts and building permits for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Mon Nov 20 – US Leading Index for Oct. 10amET.
  • Tues Nov 21 – US existing home sales for Oct. 10amET.
  • Wed Nov 22 – US durable goods for Oct. 8:30amET.
  • Wed Nov 22 – US final Michigan Confidence numbers for Nov. 10amET.
  • Wed Nov 22 – FOMC 11/1 meeting minutes. 2pmET.
  • Fri Nov 24 – US flash PMIs for Nov. 9:45amET.
J.P. Morgan Market Intelligence is a product of the Institutional Equities Sales and Trading desk of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC and the intellectual property thereof. It is not a product of the Research Department and is intended for distribution to institutional and professional customers only and is not intended for retail customer use. It may not be reproduced, redistributed or transmitted, in whole or in part, without J.P. Morgan’s consent. Any unauthorized use is strictly prohibited.
submitted by SIThereAndThere to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

Bitcoin, huh? WTF is going on? Should we scale you on-chain or off-chain? Will you stay decentralized, distributed, immutable?

0. Shit, this is long, TLWR please! Too long, won't read.
EDIT: TLDR TLWR for clarity.
1. Bitcoin, huh? Brief introduction.
There are 3 sections to this overview. The first section is a brief introduction to bitcoin. The second section looks at recent developments in the bitcoin world, through the analogy of email attachments, and the third section discusses what could be next, through the perspective of resilience and network security.
This is just a continuation of a long, long, possibly never-ending debate that started with the release of the bitcoin whitepaper in 2008 (see https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf). The recent mess during the past few years boils down to the controversy with the block size limit and how to appropriately scale bitcoin, the keyword appropriately. Scaling bitcoin is a controversial debate with valid arguments from all sides (see https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Block_size_limit_controversy).
I have researched, studied, and written this overview as objectively and as impartially as possible. By all means, this is still an opinion and everyone is advised to draw their own conclusions. My efforts are to make at least a few readers aware that ultimately there is only one team, and that team is the team bitcoin. Yes, currently though, there are factions within the team bitcoin. I hope that we can get beyond partisan fights and work together for the best bitcoin. I support all scaling proposals as long as they are the best for the given moment in time. Personally, I hate propaganda and love free speech as long as it is not derogatory and as long as it allows for constructive discussions.
The goal of this overview is to explain to a novice how bitcoin network works, what has been keeping many bitcoin enthusiasts concerned, and if we can keep the bitcoin network with three main properties described as decentralized, distributed, immutable. Immutable means censorship resistant. For the distinction between decentralized and distributed, refer to Figure 1: Centralized, decentralized and distributed network models by Paul Baran (1964), which is a RAND Institute study to create a robust and nonlinear military communication network (see https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_memoranda/2006/RM3420.pdf). Note that for the overall network resilience and security, distributed is more desirable than decentralized, and the goal is to get as far away from central models as possible. Of course, nothing is strictly decentralized or strictly distributed and all network elements are at different levels of this spectrum.
For those unaware how bitcoin works, I recommend the Bitcoin Wikipedia (see https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Main_Page). In short, the bitcoin network includes users which make bitcoin transactions and send them to the network memory pool called mempool, nodes which store the public and pseudonymous ledger called blockchain and which help with receiving pending transactions and updating processed transactions, thus securing the overall network, and miners which also secure the bitcoin network by mining. Mining is the process of confirming pending bitcoin transactions, clearing them from the mempool, and adding them to blocks which build up the consecutive chain of blocks on the blockchain. The blockchain is therefore a decentralized and distributed ledger built on top of bitcoin transactions, therefore impossible to exist without bitcoin. If someone claims to be working on their own blockchain without bitcoin, by the definition of the bitcoin network however, they are not talking about the actual blockchain. Instead, they intend to own a different kind of a private database made to look like the public and pseudonymous blockchain ledger.
There are roughly a couple of dozen mining pools, each possibly with hundreds or thousands of miners participating in them, to several thousand nodes (see https://blockchain.info/pools and https://coin.dance/nodes). Therefore, the bitcoin network has at worst decentralized miners and at best distributed nodes. The miner and node design makes the blockchain resilient and immune to reversible changes, making it censorship resistant, thus immutable. The bitcoin blockchain avoids the previous need for a third party to trust. This is a very elegant solution to peer-to-peer financial exchange via a network that is all: decentralized, distributed, immutable. Extra features (escrow, reversibility via time-locks, and other features desirable in specific instances) can be integrated within the network or added on top of this network, however, they have not been implemented yet.
Miners who participate receive mining reward consisting of newly mined bitcoins at a predetermined deflationary rate and also transaction fees from actual bitcoin transactions being processed. It is estimated that in 2022, miners will have mined more than 90% of all 21 million bitcoins ever to be mined (see https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Controlled_supply). As the mining reward from newly mined blocks diminishes to absolute zero in 2140, the network eventually needs the transaction fees to become the main component of the reward. This can happen either via high-volume-low-cost transaction fees or low-volume-high-cost transaction fees. Obviously, there is the need to address the question of fees when dealing with the dilemma how to scale bitcoin. Which type of fees would you prefer and under which circumstances?
2. WTF is going on? Recent developments.
There are multiple sides to the scaling debate but to simplify it, first consider the 2 main poles. In particular, to scale bitcoin on blockchain or to scale it off it, that is the question!
The first side likes the idea of bitcoin as it has been until now. It prefers on-chain scaling envisioned by the bitcoin creator or a group of creators who chose the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto. It is now called Bitcoin Cash and somewhat religiously follows Satoshi’s vision from the 2008 whitepaper and their later public forum discussions (see https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1347.msg15366#msg15366). Creators’ vision is good to follow but it should not be followed blindly and dogmatically when better advancements are possible, the keyword when. To alleviate concerning backlog of transactions and rising fees, Bitcoin Cash proponents implemented a simple one-line code update which increased the block size limit for blockhain blocks from 1MB block size limit to a new, larger 8MB limit. This was done through a fork on August 1, 2017, which created Bitcoin Cash, and which kept the bitcoin transaction history until then. Bitcoin Cash has observed significant increase in support, from 3% of all bitcoin miners at first to over 44% of all bitcoin miners after 3 weeks on August 22, 2017 (see http://fork.lol/pow/hashrate and http://fork.lol/pow/hashrateabs).
An appropriate scaling analogy is to recall email attachments early on. They too were limited to a few MB at first, then 10MB, 20MB, up until 25MB on Gmail. But even then, Gmail eventually started using Google Drive internally. Note that Google Drive is a third party to Gmail, although yes, it is managed by the same entity.
The second side argues that bitcoin cannot work with such a scaling approach of pre-meditated MB increases. Arguments against block size increases include miner and node centralization, and bandwidth limitations. These are discussed in more detail in the third section of this overview. As an example of an alternative scaling approach, proponents of off-chain scaling want to jump to the internally integrated third party right away, without any MB increase and, sadly, without any discussion. Some of these proponents called one particular implementation method SegWit, which stands for Segregated Witness, and they argue that SegWit is the only way that we can ever scale up add the extra features to the bitcoin network. This is not necessarily true because other scaling solutions are feasible, such as already functioning Bitcoin Cash, and SegWit’s proposed solution will not use internally integrated third party as shown next. Note that although not as elegant as SegWit is today, there are other possibilities to integrate some extra features without SegWit (see /Bitcoin/comments/5dt8tz/confused_is_segwit_needed_for_lightning_network).
Due to the scaling controversy and the current backlog of transactions and already high fees, a third side hastily proposed a compromise to a 2MB increase in addition to the proposed SegWit implementation. They called it SegWit2x, which stands for Segregated Witness with 2MB block size limit increase. But the on-chain scaling and Bitcoin Cash proponents did not accept it due to SegWit’s design redundancy and hub centralization which are discussed next and revisited in the third section of this overview. After a few years of deadlock, that is why the first side broke free and created the Bitcoin Cash fork.
The second side stuck with bitcoin as it was. In a way, they inherited the bitcoin network without any major change to public eye. This is crucial because major changes are about to happen and the original bitcoin vision, as we have known it, is truly reflected only in what some media refer to as a forked clone, Bitcoin Cash. Note that to avoid confusion, this second side is referred to as Bitcoin Core by some or Legacy Bitcoin by others, although mainstream media still refers to it simply as Bitcoin. The core of Bitcoin Core is quite hardcore though. They too rejected the proposed compromise for SegWit2x and there are clear indications that they will push to keep SegWit only, forcing the third side with SegWit2x proponents to create another fork in November 2017 or to join Bitcoin Cash. Note that to certain degree, already implemented and working Bitcoin Cash is technically superior to SegWit2x which is yet to be deployed (see /Bitcoin/comments/6v0gll/why_segwit2x_b2x_is_technically_inferior_to).
Interestingly enough, those who agreed to SegWit2x have been in overwhelming majority, nearly 87% of all bitcoin miners on July 31, 2017 prior to the fork, and a little over 90% of remaining Bitcoin Core miners to date after the fork (see https://coin.dance/blocks). Despite such staggering support, another Bitcoin Core fork is anticipated later in November (see https://cointelegraph.com/news/bitcoin-is-splitting-once-again-are-you-ready) and the "Outcome #2: Segwit2x reneges on 2x or does not prioritize on-chain scaling" seems to be on track from the perspective of Bitcoin Core SegWit, publicly seen as the original Bitcoin (see https://blog.bridge21.io/before-and-after-the-great-bitcoin-fork-17d2aad5d512). The sad part is that although in their overwhelming majority, the miners who support SegWit2x would be the ones creating another Bitcoin Core SegWit2x fork or parting ways from the original Bitcoin.
In a way, this is an ironic example how bitcoin’s built-in resiliency to veto changes causes majority to part away when a small minority has status quo and holds off fully-consented progress. Ultimately, this will give the minority Bitcoin Core SegWit proponents the original Bitcoin branding, perhaps to lure in large institutional investors and monetize on bitcoin’s success as we have it seen it during the past 9 years since its inception. Recall that bitcoin of today is already a decentralized, distributed, immutable network by its definition. The bitcoin network was designed to be an alternative to centralized and mutable institutions, so prevalent in modern capitalist societies.
Bitcoin Core SegWit group wants to change the existing bitcoin network to a network with dominant third parties which, unlike Google Drive to Gmail, are not internal. In particular, they intend to do so via the lightning network, which is a second layer solution (2L). This particular 2L as currently designed relies on an artificial block size limit cap which creates a bottleneck in order to provide high incentives for miners to participate. It monetizes on backlog of transaction and high fees, which are allocated to miners, not any group in particular. Cheaper and more instantaneous transactions are shifted to the lightning network which is operated by hubs also earning revenue. Note that some of these hubs may choose to monitor transactions and can possibly censor who is allowed to participate in this no longer strictly peer-to-peer network.
We lose the immutability and instead we have a peer-to-hub-to-peer network that is mutable and at best decentralized, and certainly not distributed (see https://medium.com/@jonaldfyookball/mathematical-proof-that-the-lightning-network-cannot-be-a-decentralized-bitcoin-scaling-solution-1b8147650800). For regular day-to-day and recurring transactions, it is not a considerable risk or inconvenience. And one could choose to use the main chain any time to bypass the lightning network and truly transact peer-to-peer. But since the main chain has an entry barrier in the form of artificially instilled high transaction fees, common people are not able to use bitcoin as we have known it until now. Peer-to-peer bitcoin becomes institution-to-institution bitcoin with peer-to-hub-to-peer 2L.
To reiterate and stress, note the following lightning network design flaw again. Yes, activating SegWit and allowing 2L such as lightning allows for lower transaction fees to coexist side by side with more costly on-chain transactions. For those using this particularly prescribed 2L, the fees remain low. But since these 2L are managed by hubs, we introduce another element to trust, which is contrary to what the bitcoin network was designed to do at the first place. Over time, by the nature of the lightning network in its current design, these third party hubs grow to be centralized, just like Visa, Mastercard, Amex, Discover, etc. There is nothing wrong with that in general because it works just fine. But recall that bitcoin set out to create a different kind of a network. Instead of decentralized, distributed, immutable network with miners and nodes, with the lightning network we end up with at best decentralized but mutable network with hubs.
Note that Bitcoin Core SegWit has a US-based organization backing it with millions of dollars (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blockstream and https://steemit.com/bitcoin/@adambalm/the-truth-about-who-is-behind-blockstream-and-segwit-as-the-saying-goes-follow-the-money). Their proponents are quite political and some even imply $1000 fees on the main bitcoin blockchain (see https://cointelegraph.com/news/ari-paul-tuur-demeester-look-forward-to-up-to-1k-bitcoin-fees). Contrary to them, Bitcoin Cash proponents intend to keep small fees on a scale of a few cents, which in large volume in larger blockchain blocks provide sufficient incentive for miners to participate.
On the one hand, sticking to the original vision of peer-to-peer network scaled on-chain has merit and holds potential for future value. On the other hand, 2L have potential to carry leaps forward from current financial infrastructure. As mentioned earlier, 2L will allow for extra features to be integrated off-chain (e.g. escrow, reversibility via time-locks), including entirely new features such as smart contracts, decentralized applications, some of which have been pioneered and tested on another cryptocurrency network called Ethereum. But such features could be one day implemented directly on the main bitcoin blockchain without the lightning network as currently designed, or perhaps with a truly integrated 2L proposed in the third section of this overview.
What makes the whole discussion even more confusing is that there are some proposals for specific 2L that would in fact increase privacy and make bitcoin transactions less pseudonymous than those on the current bitcoin blockchain now. Keep in mind that 2L are not necessarily undesirable. If they add features and keep the main network characteristics (decentralized, distributed, immutable), they should be embraced with open arms. But the lightning network as currently designed gives up immutability and hub centralization moves the network characteristic towards a decentralized rather than a distributed network.
In a sense, back to the initial email attachment analogy, even Gmail stopped with attachment limit increases and started hosting large files on Google Drive internally, with an embedded link in a Gmail email to download anything larger than 25MB from Google Drive. Anticipating the same scaling decisions, the question then becomes not if but when and how such 2L should be implemented, keeping the overall network security and network characteristics in mind. If you have not gotten it yet, repeat, repeat, repeat: decentralized, distributed, immutable. Is it the right time now and is SegWit (one way, my way or highway) truly the best solution?
Those siding away from Bitcoin Core SegWit also dislike that corporate entities behind Blockstream, the one publicly known corporate entity directly supporting SegWit, have allegedly applied for SegWit patents which may further restrict who may and who may not participate in the creation of future hubs, or how these hubs are controlled (see the alleged patent revelations, https://falkvinge.net/2017/05/01/blockstream-patents-segwit-makes-pieces-fall-place, the subsequent Twitter rebuttal Blockstream CEO, http://bitcoinist.com/adam-back-no-patents-segwit, and the subsequent legal threats to SegWit2x proponents /btc/comments/6vadfi/blockstream_threatening_legal_action_against). Regardless if the patent claims are precise or not, the fact remains that there is a corporate entity dictating and vetoing bitcoin developments. Objectively speaking, Bitcoin Core SegWit developers paid by Blockstream is a corporate takeover of the bitcoin network as we have known it.
And on the topic of patents and permissionless technological innovations, what makes all of this even more complicated is that a mining improvement technology called ASICboost is allowed on Bitcoin Cash. The main entities who forked from Bitcoin Core to form Bitcoin Cash had taken advantage of patents to the ASICboost technology on the original bitcoin network prior to the fork (see https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/breaking-down-bitcoins-asicboost-scandal). This boost saved estimated 20% electricity for miners on 1MB blocks and created unfair economic advantage for this one particular party. SegWit is one way that this boost is being eliminated, through the code. Larger blocks are another way to reduce the boost advantage, via decreased rate of collisions which made this boost happen at the first place (see https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/breaking-down-bitcoins-asicboost-scandal-solutions and https://bitslog.wordpress.com/2017/04/10/the-relation-between-segwit-and-asicboost-covert-and-overt). Therefore, the initial Bitcoin Cash proponents argue that eliminating ASICboost through the code is no longer needed or necessary.
Of course, saving any amount electricity between 0% and 20% is good for all on our planet but in reality any energy saved in a mining operation is used by the same mining operation to increase their mining capacity. In reality, there are no savings, there is just capacity redistribution. The question then becomes if it is okay that only one party currently and already holds onto this advantage, which they covertly hid for relatively long time, and which they could be using covertly on Bitcoin Cash if they desired to do so, even though it would an advantage to a smaller degree. To be fair to them, they are mining manufacturers and operators, they researched and developed the advantage from own resources, so perhaps they do indeed have the right to reap ASICboost benefits while they can. But perhaps it should happen in publicly know way, not behind closed doors, and should be temporary, with agreed patent release date.
In conclusion, there is no good and no bad actor, each side is its own shade of grey. All parties have their own truth (and villainy) to certain degree.
Bitcoin Cash's vision is for bitcoin to be an electronic cash platform and daily payment processor whereas Bitcoin Core SegWit seems to be drawn more to the ideas of bitcoin as an investment vehicle and a larger settlement layer with the payment processor function managed via at best decentralized third party hubs. Both can coexist, or either one can eventually prove more useful and digest the other one by taking over all use-cases.
Additionally, the most popular communication channel on /bitcoin with roughly 300k subscribers censors any alternative non-Bitcoin-Core-SegWit opinions and bans people from posting their ideas to discussions (see https://medium.com/@johnblocke/a-brief-and-incomplete-history-of-censorship-in-r-bitcoin-c85a290fe43). This is because their moderators are also supported by Blockstream. Note that the author of this overview has not gotten banned from this particular subreddit (yet), but has experienced shadow-banning first hand. Shadow-banning is a form of censorship. In this particular case, their moderator robot managed by people moderators, collaboratively with the people moderators, do the following:
  • (1) look for "Bitcoin Cash" and other undesirable keywords,
  • (2) warn authors that “Bitcoin Cash” is not true bitcoin (which objectively speaking it is, and which is by no means “BCash” that Bitcoin Core SegWit proponents refer to, in a coordinated effort to further confuse public, especially since some of them have published plans to officially release another cryptocurrency called “BCash” in 2018, see https://medium.com/@freetrade68/announcing-bcash-8b938329eaeb),
  • (3) further warn authors that if they try to post such opinions again, they could banned permanently,
  • (4) tell authors to delete their already posted posts or comments,
  • (5) hide their post from publicly seen boards with all other posts, thus preventing it from being seeing by the other participants in this roughly 300k public forum,
  • (6) and in extreme cases actually “remove” their valid opinions if they slip by uncensored, gain traction, and are often times raise to popularity as comments to other uncensored posts (see /btc/comments/6v3ee8/on_a_reply_i_made_in_rbitcoin_that_had_over_350 and /btc/comments/6vbyv0/in_case_we_needed_more_evidence_500_upvotes).
This effectively silences objective opinions and creates a dangerous echo-chamber. Suppressing free speech and artificially blowing up transaction fees on Bitcoin Core SegWit is against bitcoin’s fundamental values. Therefore, instead of the original Reddit communication channel, many bitcoin enthusiasts migrated to /btc which has roughly 60k subscribers as of now, up from 20k subscribers a year ago in August 2016 (see http://redditmetrics.com/btc). Moderators there do not censor opinions and allow all polite and civil discussions about scaling, including all opinions on Bitcoin Cash, Bitcoin Core, etc.
Looking beyond their respective leaderships and communication channels, let us review a few network fundamentals and recent developments in Bitcoin Core and Bitcoin Cash networks. Consequently, for now, these present Bitcoin Cash with more favorable long-term prospects.
  • (1) The stress-test and/or attack on the Bitcoin Cash mempool earlier on August 16, 2017 showed that 8MB blocks do work as intended, without catastrophic complications that Bitcoin Core proponents anticipated and from which they attempted to discourage others (see https://jochen-hoenicke.de/queue/uahf/#2w for the Bitcoin Cash mempool and https://core.jochen-hoenicke.de/queue/#2w for the Bitcoin Core mempool). Note that when compared to the Bitcoin Core mempool on their respective 2 week views, one can observe how each network handles backlogs. On the most recent 2 week graphs, the Y-scale for Bitcoin Core is 110k vs. 90k on Bitcoin Cash. In other words, at the moment, Bitcoin Cash works better than Bitcoin Core even though there is clearly not as big demand for Bitcoin Cash as there is for Bitcoin Core. The lack of demand for Bitcoin Cash is partly because Bitcoin Cash is only 3 weeks old and not many merchants have started accepting it, and only a limited number of software applications to use Bitcoin Cash has been released so far. By all means, the Bitcoin Cash stress-test and/or attack from August 16, 2017 reveals that the supply will handle the increased demand, more affordably, and at a much quicker rate.
  • (2) Bitcoin Cash “BCH” mining has become temporarily more profitable than mining Bitcoin Core “BTC” (see http://fork.lol). Besides temporary loss of miners, this puts Bitcoin Core in danger of permanently fleeing miners. Subsequently, mempool backlog and transaction fees are anticipated to increase further.
  • (3) When compared to Bitcoin Cash transaction fees at roughly $0.02, transaction fees per kB are over 800 times as expensive on Bitcoin Core, currently at over $16 (see https://cashvscore.com).
  • (4) Tipping service that used to work on Bitcoin Core's /Bitcoin a few years back has been revived by a new tipping service piloted on the more neutral /btc with the integration of Bitcoin Cash (see /cashtipperbot).
3. Should we scale you on-chain or off-chain? Scaling bitcoin.
Let us start with the notion that we are impartial to both Bitcoin Core (small blocks, off-chain scaling only) and Bitcoin Cash (big blocks, on-chain scaling only) schools of thought. We will support any or all ideas, as long as they allow for bitcoin to grow organically and eventually succeed as a peer-to-peer network that remains decentralized, distributed, immutable. Should we have a preference in either of the proposed scaling solutions?
First, let us briefly address Bitcoin Core and small blocks again. From the second section of this overview, we understand that there are proposed off-chain scaling methods via second layer solutions (2L), most notably soon-to-be implemented lightning via SegWit on Bitcoin Core. Unfortunately, the lightning network diminishes distributed and immutable network properties by replacing bitcoin’s peer-to-peer network with a two-layer institution-to-institution network and peer-to-hub-to-peer 2L. Do we need this particular 2L right now? Is its complexity truly needed? Is it not at best somewhat cumbersome (if not very redundant)? In addition to ridiculously high on-chain transaction fees illustrated in the earlier section, the lightning network code is perhaps more robust than it needs to be now, with thousands of lines of code, thus possibly opening up to new vectors for bugs or attacks (see https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Lightning_Network and https://github.com/lightningnetwork/lnd). Additionally, this particular 2L as currently designed unnecessarily introduces third parties, hubs, that are expected to centralize. We already have a working code that has been tested and proven to handle 8MB blocks, as seen with Bitcoin Cash on August 16, 2017 (see https://www.cryptocoinsnews.com/first-8mb-bitcoin-cash-block-just-mined). At best, these third party hubs would be decentralized but they would not be distributed. And these hubs would be by no means integral to the original bitcoin network with users, nodes, and miners.
To paraphrase Ocam’s razor problem solving principle, the simplest solution with the most desirable features will prevail (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam%27s_razor). The simplest scalability solution today is Bitcoin Cash because it updates only one line of code, which instantly increases the block size limit. This also allows other companies building on Bitcoin Cash to reduce their codes when compared to Bitcoin Core SegWit’s longer code, some even claiming ten-fold reductions (see /btc/comments/6vdm7y/ryan_x_charles_reveals_bcc_plan). The bitcoin ecosystem not only includes the network but it also includes companies building services on top of it. When these companies can reduce their vectors for bugs or attacks, the entire ecosystem is healthier and more resilient to hacking disasters. Obviously, changes to the bitcoin network code are desirable to be as few and as elegant as possible.
But what are the long-term implications of doing the one-line update repeatedly? Eventually, blocks would have to reach over 500MB size if they were to process Visa-level capacity (see https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Scalability). With decreasing costs of IT infrastructure, bandwidth and storage could accommodate it, but the overhead costs would increase significantly, implying miner and/or full node centralization further discussed next. To decrease this particular centralization risk, which some consider undesirable and others consider irrelevant, built-in and integrated 2L could keep the block size at a reasonably small-yet-still-large limit.
At the first sight, these 2L would remedy the risk of centralization by creating their own centralization incentive. At the closer look and Ocam’s razor principle again, these 2L do not have to become revenue-seeking third party hubs as designed with the current lightning network. They can be integrated into the current bitcoin network with at worst decentralized miners and at best distributed nodes. Recall that miners will eventually need to supplement their diminishing mining reward from new blocks. Additionally, as of today, the nodes have no built-in economic incentive to run other than securing the network and keeping the network’s overall value at its current level. Therefore, if new 2L were to be developed, they should be designed in a similar way like the lightning network, with the difference that the transaction processing revenue would not go to third party hubs but to the already integrated miners and nodes.
In other words, why do we need extra hubs if we have miners and nodes already? Let us consider the good elements from the lightning network, forget the unnecessary hubs, and focus on integrating the hubs’ responsibilities to already existing miner and node protocols. Why would we add extra elements to the system that already functions with the minimum number of elements possible? Hence, 2L are not necessarily undesirable as long as they do not unnecessarily introduce third party hubs.
Lastly, let us discuss partial on-chain scaling with the overall goal of network security. The network security we seek is the immutability and resilience via distributed elements within otherwise decentralized and distributed network. It is not inconceivable to scale bitcoin with bigger blocks as needed, when needed, to a certain degree. The thought process is the following:
  • (1) Block size limit:
We need some upper limit to avoid bloating the network with spam transactions. Okay, that makes sense. Now, what should this limit be? If we agree to disagree with small block size limit stuck at 1MB, and if we are fine with flexible block size limit increases (inspired by mining difficulty readjustments but on a longer time scale) or big block propositions (to be increased incrementally), what is holding us off next?
  • (2) Miner centralization:
Bigger blocks mean that more data will be transferred on the bitcoin network. Consequently, more bandwidth and data storage will be required. This will create decentralized miners instead of distributed ones. Yes, that is true. And it has already happened, due to the economy of scale, in particular the efficiency of grouping multiple miners in centralized facilities, and the creation of mining pools collectively and virtually connecting groups of miners not physically present in the same facility. These facilities tend to have huge overhead costs and the data storage and bandwidth increase costs are negligible in this context. The individual miners participating in mining pools will quite likely notice somewhat higher operational costs but allowing for additional revenue from integrated 2L described earlier will give them economic incentive to remain actively participating. Note that mining was never supposed to be strictly distributed and it was always at worst decentralized, as defined in the first section of this overview. To assure at best a distributed network, we have nodes.
  • (3) Node centralization:
Bigger blocks mean that more data will be transferred on the bitcoin network. Consequently, more bandwidth and data storage will be required. This will create decentralized nodes instead of distributed ones. Again, recall that we have a spectrum of decentralized and distributed networks in mind, not their absolutes. The concern about the node centralization (and the subsequent shift from distributed to decentralized network property) is valid if we only follow on-chain scaling to inconsiderate MB values. If addressed with the proposed integrated 2L that provides previously unseen economic incentives to participate in the network, this concern is less serious.
Furthermore, other methods to reduce bandwidth and storage needs can be used. A popular proposal is block pruning, which keeps only the most recent 550 blocks, and eventually deletes any older blocks (see https://news.bitcoin.com/pros-and-cons-on-bitcoin-block-pruning). Block pruning addresses storage needs and makes sure that not all nodes participating in the bitcoin network have to store all transactions that have ever been recorded on the blockchain. Some nodes storing all transactions are still necessary and they are called full nodes. Block pruning does not eliminate full nodes but it does indeed provide an economic incentive for the reduction and centralization (i.e. saving on storage costs). If addressed with the proposed integrated 2L that provides previously unseen economic incentives to participate in the network, this concern is less serious.
In other words, properly designed 2L should provide economic incentives for all nodes (full and pruned) to remain active and distributed. As of now, only miners earn revenue for participating. The lightning network proposes extra revenue for hubs. Instead, miner revenue could increase by processing 2L transactions as well, and full nodes could have an economic incentive as well. To mine, relatively high startup costs is necessary in order to get the most up to date mining hardware and proper cooling equipment. These have to be maintained and periodically upgraded. To run a full node, one needs only stable bandwidth and a sufficiently large storage, which can be expanded as needed, when needed. To run a full node, one needs only stable bandwidth and relatively small storage, which does not need to be expanded.
Keeping the distributed characteristic in mind, it would be much more secure for the bitcoin network if one could earn bitcoin by simply running a node, full or pruned. This could be integrated with a simple code change requiring each node to own a bitcoin address to which miners would send a fraction of processed transaction fees. Of course, pruned nodes would collectively receive the least transaction fee revenue (e.g. 10%), full nodes would collectively receive relatively larger transaction fee revenue (e.g. 20%), whereas mining facilities or mining pools would individually receive the largest transaction fee revenue (e.g. 70%) in addition to the full mining reward from newly mined blocks (i.e. 100%). This would assure that all nodes would remain relatively distributed. Hence, block pruning is a feasible solution.
However, in order to start pruning, one would have to have the full blockchain to begin with. As currently designed, downloading blockchain for the first time also audits previous blocks for accuracy, this can take days depending on one’s bandwidth. This online method is the only way to distribute the bitcoin blockchain and the bitcoin network so far. When the size of blockchain becomes a concern, a simpler distribution idea should be implemented offline. Consider distributions of Linux-based operating systems on USBs. Similarly, the full bitcoin blockchain up to a certain point can be distributed via easy-to-mail USBs. Note that even if we were to get the blockchain in bulk on such a USB, some form of a block audit would have to happen nevertheless.
A new form of checkpoint hashes could be added to the bitcoin code. For instance, each 2016 blocks (whenever the difficulty readjusts), all IDs from previous 2015 blocks would be hashed and recorded. That way, with our particular offline blockchain distribution, the first time user would have to audit only the key 2016th blocks, designed to occur on average once in roughly 2 weeks. This would significantly reduce bandwidth concerns for the auditing process because only each 2016th block would have to be uploaded online to be audited.
Overall, we are able to scale the bitcoin network via initial on-chain scaling approaches supplemented with off-chain scaling approaches. This upgrades the current network to a pruned peer-to-peer network with integrated 2L managed by miners and nodes who assure that the bitcoin network stays decentralized, distributed, immutable.
  • Discussion at /btc/comments/6vj47c/bitcoin_huh_wtf_is_going_on_should_we_scale_you is greatly encouraged.
  • Note that the author u/bit-architect appreciates any Bitcoin Cash donations on Reddit directly or on bitcoin addresses 178ZTiot2QVVKjru2f9MpzyeYawP81vaXi bitcoincash:qp7uqpv2tsftrdmu6e8qglwr2r38u4twlq3f7a48uq (Bitcoin Cash) and 1GqcFi4Cs1LVAxLxD3XMbJZbmjxD8SYY8S (Bitcoin Core).
  • EDIT: Donation addresses above updated.
submitted by bit-architect to btc [link] [comments]

DragonEx Roadshow Recap

DragonEx Roadshow Recap
In support of our new partnership, DragonEx Exchange invited Kambria Team members to participate in an exclusive online roadshow with both the DragonEx English and Chinese-speaking communities.
The event featured Kambria community managers Annie Wang (CH) and William Ryan (EN). Both sessions were focused and very active. Here is a recap of the conversation with William in the English channel; for clarity, the original text has been lightly edited for grammar and spelling.
Do you have any idea about Kambria? Today’s roadshow is mainly about Kambria’s project progress. and its future planning.
I understand the bulk of the conversation is going on in the DragonEx Chinese channel, but in case there are any English speakers here who are interested, we were recently listed on DragonEx. I met the team in May in New York City, and was very impressed with their professionalism. They are awesome people to know, and I am even more excited to now be working with DragonEx. They are a great exchange!
I wanna know, how is Kambria different from other AI projects?
Kambria is an open innovation platform designed to cut down and drastically reduce the time and cost it takes to innovate robotics, AI, and other frontier technologies. Kambria allows for innovators to collaborate on every aspect of the innovation process. So a company can host a bounty to utilize developers to help them build their ideas. This also allows for innovators to modularize their ideas and allow other innovators to utilize their work, and earn KAT in the process.
Can the Kambria project run without blockchain?
Kambria’s Open Innovation Platform is designed around the KAT token. It technically could work without a blockchain, but it likely would not because we all know that incentives are the basis for the work that most people do. So we use KAT to power the network, pay bounties, pay developers, companies, and innovators who contribute to the network.
The best way to achieve this is to use a decentralized blockchain with smart contracts. No one would contribute without incentives. That is the backbone to any healthy economy. That is why we believe we do need a token.
But how advanced is the project in terms of progress?
Currently, the features that we are focusing on are building out Github support to allow developers to import the githubs to build out the Kambria codebase, which will be utilized in the Kambria codebase, the backbone of the platform. Additionally, we are creating innovation hubs across the world that will allow roboticists and AI developers to come in and innovate new products.
What if a big company copies Kambria? Are there any barriers to competition?
There are currently no other companies who are doing what we are doing. Our platform encompasses every single aspect of the innovation process from concept, to design, to manufacturing, to sourcing materials, to production, to delivery. We will also not open source all of our intellectual property. Because of our experience with OhmniLabs, Kambria’s sister company, we have discovered ways to build robots using 3-D printing far cheaper than most have heard of.
Could you please introduce your team members to us?
Yes. My name is William, and I am the American Community Manager, and I have with me Annie Wang, who is our Chinese Community Manager.
Let me get you some info on the rest of the team. Let’s start with the top :)
Dr. Thuc Vu — Co-Founder & CEO — AI & Game Theory Dr. Thuc is a serial entrepreneur, with multiple company acquisitions, the last one by Google. He has deep expertise in game theory, tournament design and multi-agent systems. He earned his Ph.D. from Stanford and BS from Carnegie Mellon, both in computer science. Dr. Thuc is a social entrepreneur in Vietnam, involved in several community projects.
Dr. Thuc Vu, first of all, is just incredible to work with. He is the nicest man, but he’s also very talented. He is also a very generous person who sows back into the communities around him. He has created several foundations in the world to “give back” to people, including his very own VietSeeds Foundationin Vietnam that helps poor Vietnamese children get a great college education. He sold one of his companies to Google, and then created OhmniLabs, which is Kambria’s sister company. You can visit the OhmniLabs.com website for more information.
Here’s a pic of our founders with the OhmniLabs robot.
Our CTO, Jared Go, met Dr. Thuc Vu in college. They both attended Stanford University and Carnegie Mellon together.
Jared Go — Co-Founder & CTO — Robotics — Jared is an avid maker and roboticist, previously CTO and founding member at a networks startup. He has extensive experience in blockchain, AI, real-time graphics, VR, mechanical engineering and electrical engineering. Jared is a Stanford Graduate Fellow, and has a BS in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University.
Tingxi Tan — Co-Founder & CPO — Blockchain & Cloud Computing — Tingxi has a background in cloud computing, network infrastructure and distributed system design. He has been active in Crypto Investment since 2010. He was responsible for building the global scale cloud infrastructure at a networks startup. He graduated from MSc Computer Science U of Calgary and BSc Applied Math Western University.
Dr. Tra Vu — COO — Operations & Infrastructure — Tra has a background in Financial and Civil Engineering. She earned her Master’s in Financial Engineering and her PhD in Transportation Planning & Engineering from the NYU Tandon School of Engineering. Tra currently teaches at her alma mater and was responsible for leading her previous company in designing the first city-wide Transit Signal Priority system in New York City.
Tingxi, Dr. Tra Vu, and Jared are also just fantastic people to work with. The team is not only wildly talented, but also very pleasantly nice. It’s refreshing to see.
Is artificial intelligence a moral issue? How can I overcome this problem?
I believe it could be; however, it is up to us how we build such technologies. In our open collaboration system, everyone has the ability to solve this problem. If you want to solve it, you simply can participate in building it ethically.
Is the Kambria Innovation Platform open now in public?
Yes. The Open Innovation Platform was soft-launched in September 2018, and we are preparing for a full release this year. You can check out the platform here: https://app.kambria.io
I think artificial intelligence is a big trend: very good. Is there a potential market now? What are the plans for the Kambria project in the future?
AI is one of the fastest growing technologies in the frontier space. We already have hundreds of developers ready to begin working on the Kambria Open Innovation Platform, which is why we are so eager to finish our full launch of the platform, as well as our codebase. We are not far away. The full launch will be this year.
In addition, we are opening five innovation hubs across the globe, the first in Silicon Valley, California. We also working with major universities, including Stanford and Carnegie Mellon, to host hackathons in collaboration with the International Data Engineering and Science Association (IDEAS). Additionally, Thuc created the VietAI Alliance, which is dedicated solely to AI development. There will be several more of these that work with governments and universities in many different countries
I’m just a robotics engineer, but with no knowledge in Blockchain. How can I manage your platform? In our case, we have a team of robotics engineers and AI programmers, but they have no knowledge about Blockchain.
Follow up question: Do you have an infrastructure already in place?
The great news is that many roboticists such as yourself are not familiar with blockchain, and that’s OK! You don’t need to know how the engine of a car works in order to be able to drive it. It’s the same idea. Much of the blockchain underpinnings will be taken care of for you so that you can focus on innovation. Blockchain will primarily serve as the payment vehicle for bounties, services, and other functions on the network, such as staking coins, but the actual building of the product will be very familiar to you.
We do have an infrastructure ready and proven to be HIGHLY effective. Because of our experience with OhmniLabs, we have a “tried and true” method that we will allow other projects, such as yours, to utilize, and not just ours, but everyone else’s that uses our platform. It truly is open innovation for everyone.
I hope that the Kambria project will be carried forward in the future. I want to ask if the Kambria project is an artificial intelligence platform. Can Kambria help people with disabilities? They really need this project.
Yes!!! We love this. One of the verticals that we are focusing on is healthcare. Also, we build consumer robots, and robotic arms, which are very important for helping disabled people. It’s one of the use cases we are most passionate about. That is what robotics is for after all — making human life more comfortable and easier.
One of our robots (potentially) helped save an elderly woman’s life who had fallen. Her family was able to find her quickly and easily, preventing any further damage.
Is the Kambria Platform open now in public?
The platform is open to the public. Currently, you can vote for bounties, hackathons, buy robotic development kits, and explore the codebase, but there is much, much more coming in the short term this year. You may find it at https://app.kambria.io
Is Kambria currently based on ETH, and has Kambria considered the subsequent rise of the public chain.
Yes, we are based on ETH, but we are blockchain agnostic. If ETH, for any reason, cannot scale, we will look for a more functional chain.
Yes, ETH has been criticized for its slow processing speed. Has the Kambria project considered EOS?
We have considered EOS, and that would certainly be on our radar as one of the potential chains to move to, if necessary.
Could you tell us the history of Kambria, I am very interested in it!
Surely! Our founders started a robotics company in 2015. It was built upon the premise that to really accelerate adoption of robotics in the homes, a new type of company was needed. Being far away from home ourselves, they could relate to the need for affordable robots that bring families closer. So they set out to design robots with modular components, and utilize lean, toolless manufacture. To close the cost gap, they were ultra-focused on iteration speed. Reusability and integration were the cornerstones of their fabrication process, allowing for orders of magnitude, less capital spent, and a fraction of the development time.
Being able to foster an open collaborative ecosystem, where every contribution can easily be shared, manufactured, and implemented, will be revolutionary. Companies can benefit from the collective contribution from the community to build custom applications without having to employ teams of PhDs. End users can enjoy the higher quality of life potentially afforded by more available robot products and services. A combination of reduced costs, cutting-edge technologies, and swift delivery will spur rapid adoption of the Kambria platform by companies, developers, and manufacturers. This cycle of innovation will pave the way for the next wave of robots to provide immense value for people across the world.
Ohmni has achieved good results in the market, and the architecture behind it is indispensable. However, OhmniLabs development was not easy. Built from scratch, the establishment of laboratories, and the search for supply chain production, robotic startups was very difficult. In the difficult process of exploring Ohmni, an idea gradually formed: since there are so many barriers in the field of robot development, why not create an open platform where development, purchase, research, investment, and other needs coexist? It not only brings together talents from all sides but also promotes the development of robotics. In that thought proces, Kambria was born!
We named the platform Kambria, after the Cambrian Explosion, 500 million years ago, when an accelerated evolutionary rate gave rise to biodiversity and abundance. We believe this platform will be the catalyst for a similar explosion in intelligent robotics.
How many people are there in the Kambria project? Is there a blockchain related person?
Yes, our CPO is Tingxi Tan, has extensive knowledge in blockchain development. Additionally, we have a wide array of blockchain and full-stack developers. In total, our full-time staff is 20 people and growing. There are also many part-time employees as well! You can find most of them on our LinkedIn page: https://www.linkedin.com/company/kambria/
While we are technically a global company, our two main “home bases” are in Silicon Valley and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, where much of the team is from. OhmniLabs is also in Silicon Valley.
Our advisor list is also quite extensive. I will list them here:
Prof. Manuela Veloso — AI & Robotics — Manuela Veloso is the Herbert A. Simon University Professor in the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University. Professor Veloso will be the Robotics and AI judge on the Kambria platform.
Simon Seojoon Kim — HASHED — Simon Seojoon Kim is CEO and founding partner of Hashed, a leading crypto fund based in South Korea. He is a Blockchain evangelist and organizer of Hashed Lounge, a premier Blockchain Seoul meetup community.
Loi Luu — Kyber Network — Loi Luu is a researcher working on cryptocurrencies, smart contract security and distributed consensus algorithms. He is also a regular invited speaker at Bitcoin and Ethereum workshops such as DevCon2, EDCON. Loi believes in the force of the Ethereum and Blockchain technology.
Roger Lim — NEO Global Capital — Roger Lim is an experienced angel and blockchain investor. He is the Founding Partner of NEO Global Capital and an advisor for projects like Bluzelle, Qlink, CoinFi, Thekey, Tomocoin, 0Chain, Switcheo, Open Platform, and nOS.
Long Vuong — Tomochain — Long Vuong is CEO and founder of Tomochain, a public blockchain infrastructure providing an innovative solution to the scalability problem with the Ethereum blockchain. He is often invited as guest speaker of many reputable blockchain events around the globe. Long and Tomochain will also be partnering with Kambria to develop an educational certification program in blockchain and AI.
George Li — WeTrust — George is an ex-Googler who previously co-founded CottonBrew, a Stanford StartX computer vision company. George has helped connect us with influencers and market movers in the crypto space.
May I know some recent news about this project?
In addition to our new Innovation Hubs, we launched our KAT token in December. It is currently listed on DragonEx, KuCoin, and Bitmart Exchanges. We also recently hosted an incredible event this last November where the Winklevoss Twins, and Joe Lonsdale, and several other high-level venture capitalists were in attendance. I will get you the video! :D
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t8y4MxyAvTc&feature=youtu.be — Enjoy! I know we did.
The Vietnamese government also attended our November event called Innovation, Community & Impact. It was a very big deal. We wrote several articles recapping the event if you’d like to read about it. I will drop the links from our latest post that contains all of our best top ten articles for last year.
https://medium.com/kambria-network/kambria-2018-beyond-9820242c86c1
Within that article, you can find a ton of information about our project.
Great, I hope that the Kambria project will be carried forward in the future.
Thank you! We want to change the world, and we are unique enough to do it. There is nothing in the world like Kambria. We aim to make frontier technologies WAY cheaper and easier to build. An estimated 85% percent of the work being done is considered to be “wasted effort.” Because much of the work is done in silos, that means almost everyone is doing “double work.”
We can modularize everything and allow the different pieces to be applied, thus saving a huge amount of time in the development process. Why create something from scratch when someone else has already perfected it?
Do you build great motors? AI logic? Robotic arms? You can allow others to use your innovations to build theirs, and earn KAT, promote innovation, get paid, and collaborate on a number of different ideas.
“We aim to make frontier technologies WAY cheaper and easier to build.” Yes, this sentence is very similar to what Xiaomi, the technology giant of our country said so that everyone can enjoy the fun of technology.
That’s what it's all about. Improving the quality of life so that we can focus on the more important things that life brings. Great questions by the way. You’ve been a pleasure to speak with this entire time.
We expect that you can change the world through artificial intelligence + blockchain. Thanks, William and Kambria.
You are very welcome. Please feel free to join our Telegram Channels. We do have a Chinese Channel as well. We’d love to see you there. I am going to post our channels. If you have any more questions, feel free to ping me or DM me directly. My inbox is always open.
We’d like to thank not only DragonEx Exchange for having us, but also to all of the community members who asked us such great questions!
[THE END]
About William
William Ryan is a part of the Global Kambria Community Manager Team, and a resident of Texas. He has been in blockchain since 2015, and has a strong passion for frontier technologies, including blockchain, robotics, and artificial intelligence.
The Kambria Team
Kambria Website
Kambria Whitepaper
Telegram (ENG) Telegram (KOR) Telegram (VIE)
Telegram (CHN) Telegram (RUS)
Medium (ENG) Medium (CHN)
Facebook Page Facebook Group
Reddit
Twitter
Steemit
Discord
Weibo (CHN)
Instagram
Email: [email protected]
KAT is a token to be used on the Kambria platform.
submitted by Freeme62410 to KambriaOfficial [link] [comments]

My life went to hell after I tried drugs. [Lifestory summarization, Drug story summarization]

TD;DR? Please do not comment if you didn't read the whole thing.
Long post incomming. Im from Sweden a 27 year old guy with Autism (aka I am very introvert but also intelligent) who spends his days gaming (been doing this for 9 years now, 6-10 hours a day is an understatement.
GROWING UP
Bullied since pretty much 7 years old. Not too bad tho, but still as such a young child it took a toll on me.
When I hit high school it got 10 times worse, friends one moment bullies the next. Started crying after getting punched while 13, ran to the bathroom and saw how ugly I looked when I cried so have only cried 3 times since then. Also around age 15 my father got really really mean, he was bullying me 3-4 times a week, and it went on for 1-3 hours usally. Screaming back at him ofc it really tore me down. Not feeling safe at home or in school.
Don't know the english word for it (think you have different school systems than us anyway) but school between age 16-19 (gymnasie in swedish): This was hell. I got physically and mentally abused every day, just sat and played WoW instead because I was addicted to it, and people usually left me alone. But when we went to eat I could get a snowball in the back, be pushed into the snow face first. I had my locker kicked in, and people called me names (fatass and similar). Bullying by dad was going on during those years as well.
The Drug Story:
First time I did drugs was for panic attacks which made my already bad insomnia unbearable so I got Ambien I think it's called inte U.S, Zolpidem. And WOW it removed my anxiety which I had no Idea I was carrying around but I felt such a relief. I started eating it during daytime only after a week (still living at home at this point). Don't think my parents noticed but you get really fucked up on that shit so they suspected at the very least. I drank some at home as well, but not much.
Moved to my own apartment at 20, discovered weed. Used it to treat my insomnia and anxiety - I've had insomnia issues for 20 years and anxiety since I started high school, but I didn't know how it was to live without it so never knew before the Ambien). It worked for a year ca, smoked all the time every day was hooked straight away. Spent the $30k my parents had saved for me during that year.
I went on welfare after the money were gone, roughly $600 a month. Swedish welfare system is MUCH MUCH better than most of the worlds, I think it's the best since we have the highest taxes so everyone who don't have a job can get it. $600 is enough to stay alive, keep apartment etc, but not enough to buy weed. So I started buying Benso instead and tested that.
Only thing I saw there was HOLY SHIT THIS IS BETTER THAN WEED AND 10 TIMES CHEAPER. I ate it every now and then for a couple of months, then I started to eat Rivotril (2mg every morning) so I didn't have anxiety and no social phobia. It worked for maybe half a year.
HEY it's pretty fun to mix it with booze DAMN you feel soooo gooood, memory is gone the day after but whatever I don't need to feel anxiety, I even can feel euphoric (I've never really felt happiness sober since young child). So the addiction (prefer to call addiction Demon cuz that's what it feels like) within me grabbed me harder and harder.
More than 1 pill now, maybe 5-10 a day roughly (dont remember). Also some Tramadol and little bit of Subutex, and of course other Bensos. Couldn't afford it so I had to start selling drugs, which was exciting and fun. I bought Benso on credit for $1200 which gave me 1000 Rivotril. Bought them on a Swedish forum where you can buy (think it's still up and it's not even on the dark web). It covered my own usage, I ate maybe 50% of them and sold 50% of them so went +-0.
Then I got a real letdown in my living situation - I pulled over under the influence. Boom driving license gone - I felt like I had lost my last line to society (always felt outcast obviously since I am socially akward+the bullying). My thoughts here: I DONT CARE IF I LIVE OR DIE.
The Demon had full control now, I started selling more and more, even made a bit of a profit. I was mixing deadly doses of Methadone, Alcohol, Benzos, Uppers, the whole book during this time. A standard dose could look like this: *40-60mg of Methadone, alternatively 8mg Subutex *4 litres of beer 7.7% (1 gallon). *10-40 Rivo or Xanax or both..
Needless to say I should be dead as I was mostly alone doing this, this went on for a few years. Woke up several times a night having to take a DEEEP inhale because I had stopped breathing. Dunno why I am still alive, guardian angel or something, something woke me up anyway. On my cousins baptism I was on Benzo+Subutex, and I drank there as well. Nobody said shit about it but they must have known. Dark rings under the eyes, small pupils, blank eyes yeah you get it. That side of the family is REALLY wealthy (I'm talking hundreds of millions), so every gettogether there was like the nobel dinner (always hated going on those gettogethers). *Side note: I can share more emberassing stories if anyone's interested.
This went on for roughly 2 years, I've always payed my bills before the drugs at least so never lost home, never payed a bill late at all actually. So the economy didn't suffer. Think it was during this I found SR and started getting into the darknet market. But onlt bought drugs from there, sold them on the streets.
REHAB TIME
First rock bottom. I just couldn't take the lifestyle anymore suicidetime was near. So I asked for rehab (this is the best thing about Sweden, the goverment pays for it) and got it. Got clean, the detox was hell but I have a psyche of a warrior. First time clean in a few years was wonderful, the first month is always the best. Only positive I loved it, best time in my adult life was on this rehab.
Learned that I almost died 400+ times from that rehab, it saved my life. I thought I was invincible during the most destructive time (or I didn't care) either way never going back to that.
Stayed 3 months but then I got the Demon cravings, he wanted out of his cage. I smoked some spice on the home my last week other than that I was 100% drug free during this period.
BACK TO WHAT I KNOW - DRUGS
Alright, back to it again. Train+buss home to apartment, met up a dealer 2 hours after I came home and got some subutex. Kept using Benso, Opiates, Lyrica came into the picture (got HOOKED) on that shit, in Sweden it's not even classed as a narcotic which is just insane. This poison will ruin your mind...
Now I found a Swedish darknet site similar to SR. This was during the SR2 BMR etc era, and I read up on how to decrypt adresses with PGP. Wasn't that hard and I was selling on the Deep Web within a few weeks after I got home.
And god damn, buissness was booming. I made much cash, still spent much of it on drugs but made some profit.
A days work as dealer during this time was: Sold Oxy, Benso (bought 1000 pack of benzo for $240, repackaged them into 50 and 100 and sold on the same site, but double price). Gets you an idea of how much cash possibilites I had. Ate a lot of pills still, mixed benso with alcohol still, I was a perfect vendor on this site, 100+ reviews with 5/5. That's a thing I don't understand; I eat tons of Benso but only mess up maybe 5 times by sending wrong drug to wrong person, mixing the adress labels up. Reimbursed them 110% always so got 5 from them also in the end.
The stress over all of this got too much tho. I checked the site 10 times a day, replied to all PM, posted many many mails. So I decided to go to rehab again, I had a date set but broke my ankle so 6 weeks I think it was with the cast, and then more time for the rehabilitation so I could walk again. Kept using/selling aswell. Tough times but whatever I get through it, after it healed I was done (again).
REHAB #2
This was the summer of 2015, so I was 25 years old (actually 24 when I came, had my birthday there, everytime someone has a birthday they serve cake and sing for the person who has to sit on a chair and have happy birthday sang to him/her. IT WAS HORRIBLE!
Went back to same rehab place for detox. Hardest detox of my life - 2nd worst was ofc in the first rehab. I've done many many CT from Opi because I had tolerance and wanted it to go down. But nothing had preperad me for this. 1 year of Lyrica abuse 300-900mg a day. Benso detox and opiate detox was also there, but barely noticed them because of the Lyrica shit. Bloodpressure fell, every time I got up from a chaibed I even fainted once in the cafeteria, and had a small seizure. Other detox symptoms there: Derealization (THIS IS HORRIBLE), and the usual ones like anxiety, lack of sleep and such. 4 weeks and I was feeling good again. Went to another rehab with people who had to be there otherwise they'd go to jail (90% of the people there had been sentenced to 1-2 years rehab). None of them wanted to quit talked drugs all the time and it awoke the Demon and he wanted drugs. So I said BYE BYE going to go home to drug/sell again to them and took a bus home.
Last round of craziness (I REALLY HOPE)
Now I came out again and had thirst for money. I decided now I am going to get some cash out of this shitty life. So I disciplined myself to 1 Lyrica 300mg per day for medication purposes. Sometimes I ate an Oxy, sometimes I ate a Benso but not more.
My Demon wanted me to make BIG money instead. Like $24 000 (roughly 200k Swedish) in 6 months. I sold: *Oxy which I bought for $7 for a 40mg, also sold 20mg and 10mg but the price/mg, sold them for $21 *Subutex 8mg, earned 12 dollars each pill. *Methadone, I don't remember prices for them but they were rare on the site so I propably tripled the cash (was a rule I had, triple the cash, with some exceptions). *Flunitrazepam which is rare as FUCK in Sweden, especially in an unopened package (dunno the word for it, strips? Swedish word is Blister) *Tons and tons of Benso, kept the old scheme up. *Fentanyl one time, double profit. *More in smaller amounts, acid, Lyrica, Zopiklon, propably more I don't remember.
6 months that almost crushed me. I made my goal (in other words I made $3 560 a month on avarage. Profit, not spending money on drugs there. Actually I saved all profit in Bitcoin still have it til this day and now it's worth a lot. The stress tho, everything was shit in life, depression to the max and just thinking about buissness all the time. Rarely leave apartment, gaming and buissness.
Rock bottom this time was the worst one so far, I tried to suicide on new years 2015/2016, I was drunk as fuck, had no tolerance to opiods and had Fentanyl at home. Before I went to bed I chewed it and put it in under my lip. Woke up next day with it, realized what I had done, stayed in this life a little longer but stopped selling.
The following months till June I used Amphetamine a lot. But never been awake longer than 3 days a row at this point, I can't stand being awake longer periods of time.
Hehe and I couldn't fall asleep with benso from the Amphetamine so I had to start baking hasch browns. I had a lot of cash so fuck it make them big. 5-10 grams in each batch. So it went like this: Amphetamine 1g /day roughly 1-3 days, then eat the brownies to sleep. Problem was I built tolerance to the hasch ofc, so didn't help me sleep hehe. I was confused af during this time forgot a lot of shit because I was awake so much, a really messed up guy was pissed off because I was so god damn wasted all the time. And he was right, so time for rehab again, this time a long stay.
REHAB 2016 March
Alright, another detox this one wasn't too hard. Still tough but nothing compared to the other 2. I had a REALLY good time on the rehab, fun people and I am very easy to spend time with so made many friends that I had good laughs with. Was drug free March - Oct then I went home because I wanted to sell again.
Dope-selling relapse
That didn't last long because I got busted and now I am awaiting trial (posting this on a new account and on a 2048bit VPN). They took * 3 computers * 2 cell phones * vacuum packager * hundreds of Lyrica * hundreds of Xanax * 15-20 Subutex 8mg * some personal use stuff like half a hasch piece and so on. Here I gave up on selling (still do it a little bit now but I am going to stop it).
All I could see now was darkness. Didn't know what to do except slice my wrists or go back to rehab, which I had been missing a lot with all the nice people there.. Foreveralone.jpg So I went to moms house said what had happend she got sad ofc but I wont lie to her. Slept there and went back to rehab again in November.
REHAB 2016 November
Detox was "easy" compared to the others. First 2 months were really tough but I pulled through. I was depressed because of the bust afraid of going to prison axious and felt pretty bad overall. Wanted a truck to drive into the wall and kill me pretty much. It got better with time, and March I felt like I was ready. I made up a date with the social worker to go home.
Home Again After 9 Months Rehab
Gonna short this down a lot, lots of non-drug related problems are going. I stayed sober for 3 weeks, then I smoked once a week, ate Lyrica every day for 1.5 months, detoxed myself and been without them since. Smoke weed in order to be able to sleep and use Elvanse 1-2 days a month.
Overall I am VERY HAPPY with the progress I've made towards sobriety. I am sick of that life, and I am not going back to that, well I hope and if I belived in god I would pray for it. I've always been a 5/5 seller both on the street and on Darknet. I am actually proud of this, judge me if you want. I played the game and I came out with BIG profit (wont lose it in the court I am sure of this).
Ask me anything about anything related to drugs, my life, dangers of mixing this and that... yeah you get it I am self made expert when it comes to drugs and selling them.
TL;DR Read the whole post or move on.
Thanks for reading, hope you liked the text, I am going to write a book someday (in swedish tho propably).
Gonna sleep now but will reply to all comments tomorrow.
submitted by Pundarn to Drugs [link] [comments]

InvestInBlockchain - Cryptocurrencies in the Top 100 With Working Products

Bitcoin (BTC)

📷
Bitcoin is the cryptocurrency that started it all back in 2009, after the global financial crisis and subsequent bailouts of banks left many people disenfranchised with fiat currency and outdated, insecure financial infrastructure.
Today, Bitcoin is being used for peer-to-peer payments across the globe. More than that, though, it is leading the way towards a future in which financial technology is trustless, secure, resilient, and censorship resistant. Without Bitcoin, this list would not exist.

Ethereum (ETH)

📷
The platform that brought smart contracts to the blockchain, spurring a minor revolution in the cryptocurrency ecosystem. Before Ethereum, Bitcoin and its transaction-oriented design was the central focus of most blockchain projects.
After Ethereum, teams saw the value of decentralized apps (dapps) and smart contracts, and shifted their focus to compensate.
Vitalik Buterin’s Ethereum whitepaper was released in late 2013. The project itself was announced January 2014, with a crowdsale the following July. The system officially went live in July 2015.
Since then, hundreds of businesses, individuals, and blockchain projects have adopted Ethereum as their main smart contracts platform.

Ripple (XRP)

📷
Ripple is focused primarily on one thing: fast and cheap international transactions.
Current banking infrastructure has failed to evolve in the 21st century, such that it still takes 3-5 business days on average for an international transfer to be processed. With just 4 second transaction times and at a fraction of the cost of a wire transfer, Ripple’s working product is already impacting the banking sector.
The big knock against Ripple is that its native token, XRP, is completely unnecessary. Indeed, driving adoption of Ripple’s banking solutions is far easier than getting real-world adoption for XRP.
If you’re interested in seeing a discussion about how XRP adoption will occur, you might find this reddit thread worth a read. Meanwhile, all of us will just have to wait and see whether XRP adoption strategies ultimately come to fruition.

Bitcoin Cash (BCH)

📷
Bitcoin Cash was created in 2017 when the first ever hard fork of the Bitcoin blockchain took place. The split was the result of Bitcoin’s 1MB blocks filling up. Transaction speeds were declining, fees were increasing, and it became clear to the community that the current model wasn’t sustainable for scaling.
In a move that still causes cryptocurrency fights to this day, Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash soon emerged as separate but similar projects. BCH has 8x the block size of BTC, giving it roughly 8x the transaction throughput. Its fees and transaction times are much faster, as predicted.
Learn more about Bitcoin vs Bitcoin Cash.

Stellar (XLM)

📷
The Stellar project and its associated Lumens (XLM) token was forked from the Ripple protocol in 2014. Stellar has come into its own since then, providing a blockchain connection service for fiat transactions between banks, payment systems, and people. Stellar is fast and reliable, and it works with practically no fees for the end-user.
Stellar is a payments system, meaning its job is to move money as efficiently as possible. Partnerships with banks and financial institutions were key in evaluating its status, as was the ability to actually send money using the network.
Several non-profits and commercial entities have agreed to use Stellar as part of their financial infrastructure. Recently, the team partnered with IBM and KlickEx to facilitate cross-border transactions in the South Pacific and announced an affiliate with Keybase to streamline international transactions.
Stellar also has projects being built on its network by major established entities. IBM’s blockchain division is using XLM for their payments infrastructure, for example, and the Veridium startup is working with both organizations to tokenize its carbon credits market.

Litecoin (LTC)

📷
Litecoin is a Bitcoin fork that was created in 2011 by Charlie Lee as a cheaper and faster (2.5 minute block time instead of 10) alternative to Bitcoin. This is accomplished predominantly because Litecoin uses a Scrypt hashing algorithm instead of the SHA-256 algorithm used by Bitcoin. It’s common to hear Litecoin called “digital silver” to Bitcoin’s “digital gold,” and in reality Litecoin does not really expand upon the functionality of Bitcoin in a significant way so much as it makes different tradeoffs.
That being said, it does succeed in being cheaper and faster to use than BTC, which has led to it being accepted by hundreds of merchants and thus making Litecoin one of the most widely used cryptocurrencies for digital payments.

Tether (USDT)

📷
Tether is an unusual project. Whereas most cryptocurrencies rise and fall in value, Tether was designed to stay the same, fixed at a 1:1 ratio with the U.S. dollar.
This allows users to store, send, and receive digital currencies across platforms without incurring significant losses due to value fluctuations.
The Tether stable coin sounds straightforward, but the project isn’t without controversy. USDT is supposedly backed by real USD sitting in a bank account. But in which account? Who controls it? And is Tether being used to manipulate the value of Bitcoin? It’s all part of the Tether controversy.

Monero (XMR)

📷
Released in 2014 as a fork of Bytecoin, Monero has since made a name for itself as the most popular privacy coin on the market.
Most cryptocurrencies offer little in the form of anonymity. Monero was built for privacy from the ground-up, featuring stealth addresses, ring signatures, and complete coin fungibility. All of this adds up to a near-perfect cloak of anonymity, allowing Monero users to conduct transactions without exposing their identity.
Monero has had steady growth over the years thanks to a dedicated team of developers and an active community. The project continues to evolve with new privacy features and improved transaction security.

NEO (NEO)

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NEO was founded in 2014 as one of the earliest smart contract platforms, giving it a wide breadth of possible functionality. The platform’s strongest use case is digitizing traditional assets so that they can be easily tracked and exchanged on the blockchain.
NEO is also well-known as the “Chinese Ethereum,” and the fact that it is a Chinese-based project does seem to make Chinese dapp developers somewhat more likely to build on top of it than other platforms.
In fact, NEO has already supported dozens of ICOs and remains one of the predominant platforms for supporting smart contracts and dapps.

Binance Coin (BNB)

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Binance Coin is an exchange token used to reduce trading fees on the Binance platform.
Users can opt to pay exchange, listing, and withdrawal fees using BNB and enjoy as much as a 50% discount on all charges. This turns out to be a powerful incentive for purchasing and holding BNB, as what trader doesn’t enjoy saving money on transactions?
Binance Coin is an ERC-20 token that runs on the Ethereum blockchain. Its purpose is extremely limited, but because such a vast number of Binance users transact with it every day, it qualifies as a working and active product.

Zcash (ZEC)

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Zcash is another immensely popular privacy coin that often cracks the top 20 cryptocurrencies. It uses the tagline “internet money” and promises to fully protect the privacy of transactions with zero-knowledge cryptography.
Zcash provides anonymity by shielding transactions on the blockchain, preventing anyone from seeing the sender, recipient, or value of each transaction. The technology is so effective the Ethereum team is investigating it to enable anonymous transactions on their network.
Zcash has grown in leaps and bounds in 2018. The dev team published a roadmap through the year 2020, which includes a major features upgrade in the October 2018 Sapling release. Coinbase is also considering listing Zcash, which is a huge boost for any cryptocurrency.

Qtum (QTUM)

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Qtum is a smart contracts platform similar to Ethereum, only with a stronger focus on value transfers and decentralized apps. It’s meant to be something of a hybrid between Bitcoin and Ethereum, allowing businesses to build smart contracts on the platform or just focus on cryptocurrency transactions.
Qtum launched in March 2017, and dashed straight to the top. The initial offering sold over $10 million in tokens after just 90 minutes. The project differentiated itself by providing a rare Proof-of-Stake smart contracts platform designed to compensate for some of Ethereum’s shortcomings, including lack of compatibility for mobile devices.
Qtum released its mainnet in September 2017, opening the doors to a fully functional smart contract and dapps platform. Several projects already have an established presence on the network. One of the more exciting ones is Space Chain, which aims to create an open-source satellite network anyone can use for data transmission, storage, and development.

0x Protocol (ZRX)

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0x Protocol has one of the most important working products in the entire Ethereum ecosystem. It is a permissionless, open-source protocol that facilitates trustless exchanges of Ethereum tokens through relayers and dapps that build on top of the protocol.
Not only has 0x been providing this functionality for over a year now, but they’ve been working to expand the protocol functionality significantly since that initial launch. In 0x protocol 2.0 and beyond, it will be possible to trade tokens built on standards besides ERC-20, including non-fungible ERC-721 tokens.
In a market full of scams and vaporware, 0x’s valuable contributions to the Ethereum ecosystem have made it one of the best performing cryptocurrencies of 2018.

Bytecoin (BCN)

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Bytecoin is another popular privacy-focused cryptocurrency with a strong community and user base. Transactions on the Bytecoin blockchain are instantaneous, untraceable, unlinkabe, and resistant to blockchain analysis.
Bytecoin has been around for a long time now, with contributions to the project beginning in 2012. However, that hasn’t stopped the project’s developers from continuously improving the product.
The recently updated Bytecoin roadmap has a hard fork for a consensus update scheduled for August 31, as well as numerous initiatives for community growth constantly in the works.

Decred (DCR)

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Founded in 2015 by former Bitcoin developers, Decred’s most important working product is its solution to Bitcoin’s biggest problem. No, not scalability… blockchain governance.
You see, early Bitcoiners have been debating block size limitations and the efficacy of other scalability solutions like the Lightning Network for years, even though the problem of scalability really only became discussed in the mainstream in 2017.
With its community-based governance model and strong adherence to the core ethos of decentralization, Decred is built to evolve and improve rapidly. That means that it’s equipped to handle not only the scalability problem today, but other big problems that might arise down the line.
When you have poor governance, it is an arduous process making any upgrades to a project, no matter how necessary they may seem to the majority of coin holders. Decred’s best-in-class and still improving governance model give it an intriguing case to be a leader in digital payments for a long time to come.

BitShares (BTS)

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BitShares aims to improve worldwide access to financial services via blockchain. The tagline “assist the unbanked” summarizes the project nicely. In practice, this translates to BitShares operating as a decentralized exchange, one that was built from the ground-up to avoid scalability issues and keep transaction fees low.
BitShares was launched in 2014 by Dan Larimer, who would then go on to take a lead development role in both EOS and Steem.
The current state of the project offers decentralized asset exchange, price-stable cryptocurrencies, recurring and scheduled payments, user-issued assets, and more, all available through a decentralized system powered by delegated PoS consensus.

Steem (STEEM)

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Steem is the cryptocurrency that powers Steemit, a decentralized social media platform that incentivizes user participation through micropayments. Think of it like Reddit, only instead of just upvoting or downvoting posts, users can actually reward creators for their effort.
Steem is a functional cryptocurrency used exclusively on the Steemit platform. That gives it something of a limited use, but seeing as how Steemit is live and boasts a few hundred thousand users, it’s hard to argue it isn’t a working product. Some people may even be earning money using Steemit.

Siacoin (SIA)

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Siacoin is one of the leaders in decentralized cloud storage, a more secure and affordable alternative to centralized cloud storage solutions like Amazon S3, Google Drive, iCloud, Dropbox, and others.
Sia 1.0 was launched in June 2016, and has achieved considerable adoption since then. With the $200 billion cloud storage market widely seen as one of the spaces most ripe for blockchain disruption, Sia has gotten off to a nice start by offering a functional decentralized cloud storage platform for over 2 years.

Augur (REP)

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Augur is one of the most recently launched products on this list. The platform mainnet went live in early July 2018, bringing to fruition almost 4 years of post-ICO work.
Augur is a decentralized prediction market that uses game theory to generate crowd-sourced insights. Essentially, thousands of people working together have shown the remarkable ability to forecast outcomes.
With Augur, users can put REP tokens as bets on these predictions, essentially creating a form of “useful social gambling.”
Augur’s release was a long time coming. The project started as far back as 2014, nearly a year before the ICO. The creators cite the complexity of Augur’s smart contracts as the chief cause of the lengthy development time.
Regardless of its past, Augur is now a live product with a bright future. Over 300 predictions have already been made, with the largest winning payout hitting $20,000. Betting volume even exceeded $1 million within the first weeks of launch.

Basic Attention Token (BAT)

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Basic Attention Token was one of the easiest projects to include on this list. That’s because its working product, Brave Browser, has more than 3 million active usersbetween its mobile and desktop platforms, making it one of the most widely-used working products in the blockchain space.
Not only is Brave Browser functional, it’s the only browser on the market that has built-in ad-blocking and tracker blocking, making the browsing experience both cleaner and faster than what you get with other popular browsers like Chrome and Firefox.
The future remains uncertain for the BAT token itself, as its adoption depends heavily on whether or not advertisers buy-in to the Brave model, as well as how willing Brave users are to be shown relevant ads and to pass along the BAT they earn to content publishers.
Given Brave’s success in just a short time since being launched, though, the future does appear promising for BAT.

Nano (XRB)

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Nano (formerly RaiBlocks) is all about scalability. The coin has nearly instant transactions with a completely fee-less structure. The platform accomplishes this by creating a unique blockchain for every account, preventing bloat and allowing for practically infinite scalability.
Nano’s motto of “do one thing and do it well” has gotten them a long way. The team doesn’t have to deal with scaling or slowdown issues thanks to the underlying structure of the project, allowing its roadmap to focus on wallet updates and outreach. This is one cryptocurrency that’s essentially feature complete, and it has been for some time.

Golem (GNT)

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Golem has set out to be the Airbnb of computing resources. Have you ever needed extra GPU power to finish up a render? How about processing scientific data similar to the [email protected] project?
Even if you don’t have those needs, a lot of groups do. Golem aims to provide easy access to those resources, all of which are rentable for a small cryptocurrency fee.
Golem hit the mainnet launch button in April 2018, and was met with a fair amount of fanfare. One of the main goals for the feature-incomplete launch was to push the product out so real users could put it to work.
The team was interested in strengthening their interactions with end users to help guide the future of the platform. The team has several major milestones planned for the coming months, so the mainnet release is only just the beginning.

Pundi X (NPXS)

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Pundi X has been shooting up the market cap rankings so far in Q3 2018, and they also happen to have a working product that just recently became available to retailers.
The primary Pundi X product is a point-of-sale (POS) device that enables quick and easy mobile transactions for both fiat and cryptocurrencies. 500 POS devices are already being used by retailers in Asia, and there are thousands more scheduled to be distributed in the coming months.
In addition, Pundi X also offers XPASS cards, cryptocurrency credit cards that can work in place of mobile apps for making digital payments.
What makes the Pundi X project noteworthy is that it enables consumers to pay retailers in cryptocurrencies like BTC and ETH, and it immediately converts the payments into local fiat currencies so that retailers don’t need to worry about price volatility of the cryptocurrencies.
This makes it significantly easier for people to use cryptocurrencies in their daily lives, making Pundi X an exciting project for blockchain enthusiasts who are looking for signs of future mass adoption.

Waves (WAVES)

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Waves was the first ever blockchain platform that made it possible for anybody — regardless of their programming experience — to create blockchain tokens. Additionally, Waves has a decentralized exchange where tokens can be traded and exchanged with fiat currencies.
Since the project’s first releases in 2016, Waves has gone on to make their DEX accessible from mobile phones and expanded its functionality significantly, while also building several strategic partnerships to help grow the Waves community and user base.
Ultimately, though, the Waves Client is the project’s most important working product, as it is what allows tokens to be issued, stored, sent, and exchanged among users.

KuCoin Shares (KCS)

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Similar to Binance Coin, KuCoin Shares is an exchange token that can be used to pay reduced fees on cryptocurrency trades. KCS has the added bonus of paying dividends to long-term hodlers, as well, paying out a 5% ROI for most users.
The nature of KuCoin Shares is one of the reasons the KuCoin exchange has gotten so much attention since it appeared on the scene. The tokens themselves are limited in scope, of course, but the sheer number of people using them for trades and buying them for passive income is enormous.

Wanchain (WAN)

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Wanchain aims to build new and improved financial infrastructure to seamlessly connect the digital economy through blockchain interoperability. The use cases for Wanchain’s network are vast, and they include decentralized financial services, supply chain logistics, medical data sharing and security, digital ID management, and more.
With the recently released Wanchain 2.0, it is now possible to transfer Ether cross-chain using Wanchain’s Ethereum Mapping Token, WETH.
Ethereum interoperability is just the start, though, and it’s expected that cross-chain support for Bitcoin and a couple of ERC-20 tokens will follow before the end of 2018.

Komodo (KMD)

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Komodo is a fork of Zcash that uses the same zk-snark cryptography to hide information about transaction participants and amounts being sent. Functional privacy coins aren’t unique (there are a handful on this list) but Komodo does have some unique features.
For one, Komodo was the first ever decentralized initial coin offering. Moreover, Komodo helps other developers to build their own customizable blockchain solutions, from building and securing independent blockchains and launching decentralized ICOs, to integrating projects into the cryptocurrency ecosystem.
KMD would already qualify as a working product for its anonymity features on digital payments, but add the end-to-end blockchain building solution and it’s clear that Komodo is making meaningful contributions to the cryptocurrency ecosystem.

Ardor (ARDR)

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Ardor is a scalable blockchain platform that allows businesses to create their own child chains and tokens with relative ease. This helps keep blockchain bloat to a minimum and provides multiple transactional tokens without sacrificing core chain transactions. It’s also a remarkably energy efficient platform that uses Proof-of-Stake to power consensus.
Ardor launched its mainnet on January 1, 2018 after a full year in testnet status. Its core features are largely in place, with the roadmap set to improve things like scalability and snapshotting.
The Blockchain-as-a-Service-platform hosts a few projects of its own, including the Ignis ICO, which was the first child chain on the mainnet.

Huobi Token (HT)

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Huobi is a digital asset exchange platform founded back in 2013, now offering well over 250 different trading pairs. The Huobi Token, meanwhile, is an ERC-20 token that is used on the exchange for discounts on trading fees of up to 50%.
In addition, 20% of the income generated on the Huboi Pro trading platform is used to buy back HT on the open market.
Unlike most buyback programs, the main purpose of Huobi’s program isn’t to reduce the circulating supply of HT. Rather, the HT that is bought back goes into a Huobi Investor Protection Fund, which is used to compensate Huobi users if they lose coins or tokens on the platform, as well as to ensure market stability and protect investor interests.

ZenCash (ZEN)

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ZenCash is yet another privacy coin with a working product in the Top 100, originally launched in the first half of 2017.
What makes ZenCash unique is that it’s the first blockchain with Transport Layer Security (TLS) integration for node encryption, making communication on the ZenCash network both private and highly secure.
Some other interesting parts of the ZenCash product include Tor nodes and built-in chat messaging services. In the future, the ZenCash team will deliver a DAO Treasury Protocol-level Voting System as well as a scalability solution to handle greater transaction volume.

PIVX (PIVX)

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PIVX is another privacy coin that focuses on keeping users and their associated transactions hidden under a cloak of secrecy. The project also tries to keep transactions as fast and fee-less as possible, something not all privacy platforms can boast about.
PIVX launched in January 2016. The coin is currently spendable and delivers the privacy features it promises, though it’s not yet a widely accepted currency by merchants.
Future plans for PIVX include governance functions to engage the community, wallet voting, and its own zPIV decentralized exchange.

Kyber Network (KNC)

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Kyber Network launched their mainnet in Q1 2018, enabling instantaneous and secure inter-token settlements through a Decentralized Liquidity Network.
It’s currently possible to swap ERC-20 tokens on the network with just a few mouse clicks, giving it some basic functionality that is already being used to improve liquidity for Ethereum tokens.
In the future, however, Kyber Network will expand its functionality significantly in an effort to seamlessly connect dapps, DEXes, protocols, payment systems, token teams, investors, fund managers, and digital wallets.

Bancor (BNT)

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Bancor is a liquidity provider that enables users to exchange tokens without the need for a third-party to be involved in financing the transaction.
Gaining liquidity is incredibly important for young cryptocurrency projects, as a lack of liquidity makes it risky for investors to buy a considerable amount of a given coin or token, knowing that it might be exceedingly difficult to sell should they wish to.
Bancor’s technology makes it possible to convert one token to another, so that investors can be confident that they won’t be stuck involuntarily holding a cryptocurrency that they want to sell. This functionality makes the Bancor Liquidity Network one of the most promising working products on this list, and one that has already achieved a good deal of adoption.

Loom Network (LOOM)

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Loom Network is still less than a year old, having been founded in October 2017. However, they have accomplished a lot in that short time span, including having launched numerous tools to help software developers learn how to build blockchain solutions.
The most important of these tools — and Loom’s biggest working product — is the Loom software development kit (SDK).
However, Loom Network is far more than just a simple blockchain coding academy. It is also a production-ready scalability solution for Ethereum, as the Loom developer toolkit helps programmers to build highly scalable dapps which connect to the Ethereum blockchain through special side chains called DappChains.
The project may still be in its infancy, but Loom Network is already contributing more utility to the cryptocurrency ecosystem than the vast majority of other cryptocurrency projects.

Polymath (POLY)

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Polymath wants to be the world’s go-to resource for security tokens on the blockchain. What Ethereum did for tokens, Polymath will do for securities.
The advantages of this are enormous, but the Polymath team likes to point to 24/7 market access, the elimination of middlemen, and trading access for 2 billion unbanked people around the world as the chief benefits of their efforts.
The Polymath platform launched in October 2017, and has since released a new security token every week, attracting investors and traders alike. It’s not as exciting of a project as some other blockchain tech, but it’s delivering on its promises with a working product.

Bibox Token (BIX)

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Bibox is a encrypted digital asset exchange whose primary differentiator from other crypto exchanges is that it integrates AI technology.
The purpose of the AI is to help Bibox’s traders, which it does by providing quantitative computation and analysis of trading activity, personalized risk allocation strategy, speech recognition, and objective analysis of the various coins and tokens listed on the exchange.
The Bibox exchange first launched back in November 2017. It has operation centers in the US, Canada, mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, and Estonia. BIX token holders receive 20% of the exchange profits, and also get discounts on trading fees, similar to Binance.
https://www.investinblockchain.com/top-cryptocurrencies-working-products/
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