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Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal
Dragonchain Public Proposal TL;DR:
Dragonchain has demonstrated twice Reddit’s entire total daily volume (votes, comments, and postsper Reddit 2019 Year in Review) in a 24-hour demo on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. At the time, in January 2020, the entire cost of the demo was approximately $25K on a single system (transaction fees locked at $0.0001/txn). With current fees (lowest fee $0.0000025/txn), this would cost as little as $625. Watch Joe walk through the entire proposal and answer questions onYouTube. This proposal is also available on the Dragonchain blog.
Hello Reddit and Ethereum community!
I’m Joe Roets, Founder & CEO of Dragonchain. When the team and I first heard about The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off we were intrigued. We believe we have the solutions Reddit seeks for its community points system and we have them at scale. For your consideration, we have submitted our proposal below. The team at Dragonchain and I welcome and look forward to your technical questions, philosophical feedback, and fair criticism, to build a scaling solution for Reddit that will empower its users. Because our architecture is unlike other blockchain platforms out there today, we expect to receive many questions while people try to grasp our project. I will answer all questions here in this thread on Reddit, and I've answered some questions in the stream on YouTube. We have seen good discussions so far in the competition. We hope that Reddit’s scaling solution will emerge from The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off and that Reddit will have great success with the implementation.
Dragonchain is a robust open source hybrid blockchain platform that has proven to withstand the passing of time since our inception in 2014. We have continued to evolve to harness the scalability of private nodes, yet take full advantage of the security of public decentralized networks, like Ethereum. We have a live, operational, and fully functional Interchain network integrating Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and ~700 independent Dragonchain nodes. Every transaction is secured to Ethereum, Bitcoin, and Ethereum Classic. Transactions are immediately usable on chain, and the first decentralization is seen within 20 seconds on Dragon Net. Security increases further to public networks ETH, BTC, and ETC within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Smart contracts can be written in any executable language, offering full freedom to existing developers. We invite any developer to watch the demo, play with our SDK’s, review open source code, and to help us move forward. Dragonchain specializes in scalable loyalty & rewards solutions and has built a decentralized social network on chain, with very affordable transaction costs. This experience can be combined with the insights Reddit and the Ethereum community have gained in the past couple of months to roll out the solution at a rapid pace.
Response and PoC
In The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off post, Reddit has asked for a series of demonstrations, requirements, and other considerations. In this section, we will attempt to answer all of these requests.
A live proof of concept showing hundreds of thousands of transactions
On Jan 7, 2020, Dragonchain hosted a 24-hour live demonstration during which a quarter of a billion (250 million+) transactions executed fully on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. This means that every single transaction is secured by, and traceable to these networks. An attack on this system would require a simultaneous attack on all of the Interchained networks. 24 hours in 4 minutes (YouTube): 24 hours in 4 minutes The demonstration was of a single business system, and any user is able to scale this further, by running multiple systems simultaneously. Our goals for the event were to demonstrate a consistent capacity greater than that of Visa over an extended time period. Tooling to reproduce our demo is available here: https://github.com/dragonchain/spirit-bomb
Source code (for on & off-chain components as well tooling used for the PoC). The source code does not have to be shared publicly, but if Reddit decides to use a particular solution it will need to be shared with Reddit at some point.
Dragonchain’s architecture attacks the scalability issue from multiple angles. Dragonchain is a hybrid blockchain platform, wherein every transaction is protected on a business node to the requirements of that business or purpose. A business node may be held completely private or may be exposed or replicated to any level of exposure desired. Every node has its own blockchain and is independently scalable. Dragonchain established Context Based Verification as its consensus model. Every transaction is immediately usable on a trust basis, and in time is provable to an increasing level of decentralized consensus. A transaction will have a level of decentralization to independently owned and deployed Dragonchain nodes (~700 nodes) within seconds, and full decentralization to BTC and ETH within minutes or hours. Level 5 nodes (Interchain nodes) function to secure all transactions to public or otherwise external chains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. These nodes scale the system by aggregating multiple blocks into a single Interchain transaction on a cadence. This timing is configurable based upon average fees for each respective chain. For detailed information about Dragonchain’s architecture, and Context Based Verification, please refer to the Dragonchain Architecture Document.
An interesting feature of Dragonchain’s network consensus is its economics and scarcity model. Since Dragon Net nodes (L2-L4) are independent staking nodes, deployment to cloud platforms would allow any of these nodes to scale to take on a large percentage of the verification work. This is great for scalability, but not good for the economy, because there is no scarcity, and pricing would develop a downward spiral and result in fewer verification nodes. For this reason, Dragonchain uses TIME as scarcity. TIME is calculated as the number of Dragons held, multiplied by the number of days held. TIME influences the user’s access to features within the Dragonchain ecosystem. It takes into account both the Dragon balance and length of time each Dragon is held. TIME is staked by users against every verification node and dictates how much of the transaction fees are awarded to each participating node for every block. TIME also dictates the transaction fee itself for the business node. TIME is staked against a business node to set a deterministic transaction fee level (see transaction fee table below in Cost section). This is very interesting in a discussion about scaling because it guarantees independence for business implementation. No matter how much traffic appears on the entire network, a business is guaranteed to not see an increased transaction fee rate.
Dragonchain uses Docker and Kubernetes to allow the use of best practices traditional system scaling. Dragonchain offers managed nodes with an easy to use web based console interface. The user may also deploy a Dragonchain node within their own datacenter or favorite cloud platform. Users have deployed Dragonchain nodes on-prem on Amazon AWS, Google Cloud, MS Azure, and other hosting platforms around the world. Any executable code, anything you can write, can be written into a smart contract. This flexibility is what allows us to say that developers with no blockchain experience can use any code language to access the benefits of blockchain. Customers have used NodeJS, Python, Java, and even BASH shell script to write smart contracts on Dragonchain. With Docker containers, we achieve better separation of concerns, faster deployment, higher reliability, and lower response times. We chose Kubernetes for its self-healing features, ability to run multiple services on one server, and its large and thriving development community. It is resilient, scalable, and automated. OpenFaaS allows us to package smart contracts as Docker images for easy deployment. Contract deployment time is now bounded only by the size of the Docker image being deployed but remains fast even for reasonably large images. We also take advantage of Docker’s flexibility and its ability to support any language that can run on x86 architecture. Any image, public or private, can be run as a smart contract using Dragonchain.
Flexibility in Scaling
Dragonchain’s architecture considers interoperability and integration as key features. From inception, we had a goal to increase adoption via integration with real business use cases and traditional systems. We envision the ability for Reddit, in the future, to be able to integrate alternate content storage platforms or other financial services along with the token.
LBRY - To allow users to deploy content natively to LBRY
MakerDAO to allow users to lend small amounts backed by their Reddit community points.
STORJ/SIA to allow decentralized on chain storage of portions of content. These integrations or any other are relatively easy to integrate on Dragonchain with an Interchain implementation.
Cost estimates (on-chain and off-chain) For the purpose of this proposal, we assume that all transactions are on chain (posts, replies, and votes).
On the Dragonchain network, transaction costs are deterministic/predictable. By staking TIME on the business node (as described above) Reddit can reduce transaction costs to as low as $0.0000025 per transaction. Dragonchain Fees Table
How to run it
Building on Dragonchain is simple and requires no blockchain experience. Spin up a business node (L1) in our managed environment (AWS), run it in your own cloud environment, or on-prem in your own datacenter. Clear documentation will walk you through the steps of spinning up your first Dragonchain Level 1 Business node. Getting started is easy...
Download Dragonchain’s dctl
Input three commands into a terminal
Build an image
More information can be found in our Get started documents.
Dragonchain is an open source hybrid platform. Through Dragon Net, each chain combines the power of a public blockchain (like Ethereum) with the privacy of a private blockchain. Dragonchain organizes its network into five separate levels. A Level 1, or business node, is a totally private blockchain only accessible through the use of public/private keypairs. All business logic, including smart contracts, can be executed on this node directly and added to the chain. After creating a block, the Level 1 business node broadcasts a version stripped of sensitive private data to Dragon Net. Three Level 2 Validating nodes validate the transaction based on guidelines determined from the business. A Level 3 Diversity node checks that the level 2 nodes are from a diverse array of locations. A Level 4 Notary node, hosted by a KYC partner, then signs the validation record received from the Level 3 node. The transaction hash is ledgered to the Level 5 public chain to take advantage of the hash power of massive public networks. Dragon Net can be thought of as a “blockchain of blockchains”, where every level is a complete private blockchain. Because an L1 can send to multiple nodes on a single level, proof of existence is distributed among many places in the network. Eventually, proof of existence reaches level 5 and is published on a public network.
Dragonchain is open source and even though the platform is easy enough for developers to code in any language they are comfortable with, we do not have so large a developer community as Ethereum. We would like to see the Ethereum developer community (and any other communities) become familiar with our SDK’s, our solutions, and our platform, to unlock the full potential of our Ethereum Interchain. Long ago we decided to prioritize both Bitcoin and Ethereum Interchains. We envision an ecosystem that encompasses different projects to give developers the ability to take full advantage of all the opportunities blockchain offers to create decentralized solutions not only for Reddit but for all of our current platforms and systems. We believe that together we will take the adoption of blockchain further. We currently have additional Interchain with Ethereum Classic. We look forward to Interchain with other blockchains in the future. We invite all blockchains projects who believe in decentralization and security to Interchain with Dragonchain.
While we only have 700 nodes compared to 8,000 Ethereum and 10,000 Bitcoin nodes. We harness those 18,000 nodes to scale to extremely high levels of security. See Dragonchain metrics.
Some may consider the centralization of Dragonchain’s business nodes as an issue at first glance, however, the model is by design to protect business data. We do not consider this a drawback as these nodes can make any, none, or all data public. Depending upon the implementation, every subreddit could have control of its own business node, for potential business and enterprise offerings, bringing new alternative revenue streams to Reddit.
Costs and resources
Summary of cost & resource information for both on-chain & off-chain components used in the PoC, as well as cost & resource estimates for further scaling. If your PoC is not on mainnet, make note of any mainnet caveats (such as congestion issues).
Every transaction on the PoC system had a transaction fee of $0.0001 (one-hundredth of a cent USD). At 256MM transactions, the demo cost $25,600. With current operational fees, the same demonstration would cost $640 USD. For the demonstration, to achieve throughput to mimic a worldwide payments network, we modeled several clients in AWS and 4-5 business nodes to handle the traffic. The business nodes were tuned to handle higher throughput by adjusting memory and machine footprint on AWS. This flexibility is valuable to implementing a system such as envisioned by Reddit. Given that Reddit’s daily traffic (posts, replies, and votes) is less than half that of our demo, we would expect that the entire Reddit system could be handled on 2-5 business nodes using right-sized containers on AWS or similar environments. Verification was accomplished on the operational Dragon Net network with over 700 independently owned verification nodes running around the world at no cost to the business other than paid transaction fees.
This PoC should scale to the numbers below with minimal costs (both on & off-chain). There should also be a clear path to supporting hundreds of millions of users. Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle: *100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points) *25,000 subscriptions *75,000 one-off points burning *100,000 transfers
During Dragonchain’s 24 hour demo, the above required numbers were reached within the first few minutes. Reddit’s total activity is 9000% more than Ethereum’s total transaction level. Even if you do not include votes, it is still 700% more than Ethereum’s current volume. Dragonchain has demonstrated that it can handle 250 million transactions a day, and it’s architecture allows for multiple systems to work at that level simultaneously. In our PoC, we demonstrate double the full capacity of Reddit, and every transaction was proven all the way to Bitcoin and Ethereum. Reddit Scaling on Ethereum
Solutions should not depend on any single third-party provider. We prefer solutions that do not depend on specific entities such as Reddit or another provider, and solutions with no single point of control or failure in off-chain components but recognize there are numerous trade-offs to consider
Dragonchain’s architecture calls for a hybrid approach. Private business nodes hold the sensitive data while the validation and verification of transactions for the business are decentralized within seconds and secured to public blockchains within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Nodes could potentially be controlled by owners of individual subreddits for more organic decentralization.
Billing is currently centralized - there is a path to federation and decentralization of a scaled billing solution.
Operational on-premises capabilities
Operational deployment to any datacenter
Over 700 independent Community Verification Nodes with proof of ownership
Operational Interchain (Interoperable to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Ethereum Classic, open to more)
Usability Scaling solutions should have a simple end user experience.
Users shouldn't have to maintain any extra state/proofs, regularly monitor activity, keep track of extra keys, or sign anything other than their normal transactions
Dragonchain and its customers have demonstrated extraordinary usability as a feature in many applications, where users do not need to know that the system is backed by a live blockchain. Lyceum is one of these examples, where the progress of academy courses is being tracked, and successful completion of courses is rewarded with certificates on chain. Our @Save_The_Tweet bot is popular on Twitter. When used with one of the following hashtags - #please, #blockchain, #ThankYou, or #eternalize the tweet is saved through Eternal to multiple blockchains. A proof report is available for future reference. Other examples in use are DEN, our decentralized social media platform, and our console, where users can track their node rewards, view their TIME, and operate a business node. Examples:
Transactions complete in a reasonable amount of time (seconds or minutes, not hours or days)
All transactions are immediately usable on chain by the system. A transaction begins the path to decentralization at the conclusion of a 5-second block when it gets distributed across 5 separate community run nodes. Full decentralization occurs within 10 minutes to 2 hours depending on which interchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, or Ethereum Classic) the transaction hits first. Within approximately 2 hours, the combined hash power of all interchained blockchains secures the transaction.
Free to use for end users (no gas fees, or fixed/minimal fees that Reddit can pay on their behalf)
With transaction pricing as low as $0.0000025 per transaction, it may be considered reasonable for Reddit to cover transaction fees for users. All of Reddit's Transactions on Blockchain (month) Community points can be earned by users and distributed directly to their Reddit account in batch (as per Reddit minting plan), and allow users to withdraw rewards to their Ethereum wallet whenever they wish. Withdrawal fees can be paid by either user or Reddit. This model has been operating inside the Dragonchain system since 2018, and many security and financial compliance features can be optionally added. We feel that this capability greatly enhances user experience because it is seamless to a regular user without cryptocurrency experience, yet flexible to a tech savvy user. With regard to currency or token transactions, these would occur on the Reddit network, verified to BTC and ETH. These transactions would incur the $0.0000025 transaction fee. To estimate this fee we use the monthly active Reddit users statista with a 60% adoption rate and an estimated 10 transactions per month average resulting in an approximate $720 cost across the system. Reddit could feasibly incur all associated internal network charges (mining/minting, transfer, burn) as these are very low and controllable fees. Reddit Internal Token Transaction Fees Reddit Ethereum Token Transaction Fees When we consider further the Ethereum fees that might be incurred, we have a few choices for a solution.
Offload all Ethereum transaction fees (user withdrawals) to interested users as they wish to withdraw tokens for external use or sale.
Cover Ethereum transaction fees by aggregating them on a timed schedule. Users would request withdrawal (from Reddit or individual subreddits), and they would be transacted on the Ethereum network every hour (or some other schedule).
In a combination of the above, customers could cover aggregated fees.
Integrate with alternate Ethereum roll up solutions or other proposals to aggregate minting and distribution transactions onto Ethereum.
Users should be able to view their balances & transactions via a blockchain explorer-style interface
From interfaces for users who have no knowledge of blockchain technology to users who are well versed in blockchain terms such as those present in a typical block explorer, a system powered by Dragonchain has flexibility on how to provide balances and transaction data to users. Transactions can be made viewable in an Eternal Proof Report, which displays raw data along with TIME staking information and traceability all the way to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and every other Interchained network. The report shows fields such as transaction ID, timestamp, block ID, multiple verifications, and Interchain proof. See example here. Node payouts within the Dragonchain console are listed in chronological order and can be further seen in either Dragons or USD. See example here. In our social media platform, Dragon Den, users can see, in real-time, their NRG and MTR balances. See example here. A new influencer app powered by Dragonchain, Raiinmaker, breaks down data into a user friendly interface that shows coin portfolio, redeemed rewards, and social scores per campaign. See example here.
Exiting is fast & simple
Withdrawing funds on Dragonchain’s console requires three clicks, however, withdrawal scenarios with more enhanced security features per Reddit’s discretion are obtainable.
Interoperability Compatibility with third party apps (wallets/contracts/etc) is necessary.
Proven interoperability at scale that surpasses the required specifications. Our entire platform consists of interoperable blockchains connected to each other and traditional systems. APIs are well documented. Third party permissions are possible with a simple smart contract without the end user being aware. No need to learn any specialized proprietary language. Any code base (not subsets) is usable within a Docker container. Interoperable with any blockchain or traditional APIs. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js. Please see our source code and API documentation.
Scaling solutions should be extensible and allow third parties to build on top of it Open source and extensible APIs should be well documented and stable
Third-party permissionless integrations should be possible & straightforward Smart contracts are Docker based, can be written in any language, use full language (not subsets), and can therefore be integrated with any system including traditional system APIs. Simple is better. Learning an uncommon or proprietary language should not be necessary.
Advanced knowledge of mathematics, cryptography, or L2 scaling should not be required. Compatibility with common utilities & toolchains is expected. Dragonchain business nodes and smart contracts leverage Docker to allow the use of literally any language or executable code. No proprietary language is necessary. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js.
Bonus Points: Show us how it works. Do you have an idea for a cool new use case for Community Points? Build it!
Community points could be awarded to Reddit users based upon TIME too, whereas the longer someone is part of a subreddit, the more community points someone naturally gained, even if not actively commenting or sharing new posts. A daily login could be required for these community points to be credited. This grants awards to readers too and incentivizes readers to create an account on Reddit if they browse the website often. This concept could also be leveraged to provide some level of reputation based upon duration and consistency of contribution to a community subreddit.
Dragonchain has already built a social media platform that harnesses community involvement. Dragon Den is a decentralized community built on the Dragonchain blockchain platform. Dragon Den is Dragonchain’s answer to fake news, trolling, and censorship. It incentivizes the creation and evaluation of quality content within communities. It could be described as being a shareholder of a subreddit or Reddit in its entirety. The more your subreddit is thriving, the more rewarding it will be. Den is currently in a public beta and in active development, though the real token economy is not live yet. There are different tokens for various purposes. Two tokens are Lair Ownership Rights (LOR) and Lair Ownership Tokens (LOT). LOT is a non-fungible token for ownership of a specific Lair. LOT will only be created and converted from LOR. Energy (NRG) and Matter (MTR) work jointly. Your MTR determines how much NRG you receive in a 24-hour period. Providing quality content, or evaluating content will earn MTR.
Security. Users have full ownership & control of their points.
All community points awarded based upon any type of activity or gift, are secured and provable to all Interchain networks (currently BTC, ETH, ETC). Users are free to spend and withdraw their points as they please, depending on the features Reddit wants to bring into production.
Balances and transactions cannot be forged, manipulated, or blocked by Reddit or anyone else
Users can withdraw their balance to their ERC20 wallet, directly through Reddit. Reddit can cover the fees on their behalf, or the user covers this with a portion of their balance.
Users should own their points and be able to get on-chain ERC20 tokens without permission from anyone else
Through our console users can withdraw their ERC20 rewards. This can be achieved on Reddit too. Here is a walkthrough of our console, though this does not show the quick withdrawal functionality, a user can withdraw at any time. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNlTMxnfVHw
Points should be recoverable to on-chain ERC20 tokens even if all third-parties involved go offline
If necessary, signed transactions from the Reddit system (e.g. Reddit + Subreddit) can be sent to the Ethereum smart contract for minting.
A public, third-party review attesting to the soundness of the design should be available
To our knowledge, at least two large corporations, including a top 3 accounting firm, have conducted positive reviews. These reviews have never been made public, as Dragonchain did not pay or contract for these studies to be released.
Bonus points Public, third-party implementation review available or in progress
Compatibility with HSMs & hardware wallets
For the purpose of this proposal, all tokenization would be on the Ethereum network using standard token contracts and as such, would be able to leverage all hardware wallet and Ethereum ecosystem services.
Minting/distributing tokens is not performed by Reddit directly
This operation can be automated by smart contract on Ethereum. Subreddits can if desired have a role to play.
One off point burning, as well as recurring, non-interactive point burning (for subreddit memberships) should be possible and scalable
This is possible and scalable with interaction between Dragonchain Reddit system and Ethereum token contract(s).
Fully open-source solutions are strongly preferred
Dragonchain is fully open source (see section on Disney release after conclusion).
Whether it is today, or in the future, we would like to work together to bring secure flexibility to the highest standards. It is our hope to be considered by Ethereum, Reddit, and other integrative solutions so we may further discuss the possibilities of implementation. In our public demonstration, 256 million transactions were handled in our operational network on chain in 24 hours, for the low cost of $25K, which if run today would cost $625. Dragonchain’s interoperable foundation provides the atmosphere necessary to implement a frictionless community points system. Thank you for your consideration of our proposal. We look forward to working with the community to make something great!
Disney Releases Blockchain Platform as Open Source
The team at Disney created the Disney Private Blockchain Platform. The system was a hybrid interoperable blockchain platform for ledgering and smart contract development geared toward solving problems with blockchain adoption and usability. All objective evaluation would consider the team’s output a success. We released a list of use cases that we explored in some capacity at Disney, and our input on blockchain standardization as part of our participation in the W3C Blockchain Community Group. https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-blockchain/2016May/0052.html
In 2016, Roets proposed to release the platform as open source to spread the technology outside of Disney, as others within the W3C group were interested in the solutions that had been created inside of Disney. Following a long process, step by step, the team met requirements for release. Among the requirements, the team had to:
Obtain VP support and approval for the release
Verify ownership of the software to be released
Verify that no proprietary content would be released
Convince the organization that there was a value to the open source community
Convince the organization that there was a value to Disney
Offer the plan for ongoing maintenance of the project outside of Disney
Itemize competing projects
Verify no conflict of interest
Change the project name to not use the name Disney, any Disney character, or any other associated IP - proposed Dragonchain - approved
Obtain legal approval
Approval from corporate, parks, and other business units
Approval from multiple Disney patent groups Copyright holder defined by Disney (Disney Connected and Advanced Technologies)
Trademark searches conducted for the selected name Dragonchain
Obtain IT security approval
Manual review of OSS components conducted
OWASP Dependency and Vulnerability Check Conducted
Obtain technical (software) approval
Offer management, process, and financial plans for the maintenance of the project.
Meet list of items to be addressed before release
Remove all Disney project references and scripts
Create a public distribution list for email communications
Remove Roets’ direct and internal contact information
Create public Slack channel and move from Disney slack channels
Create proper labels for issue tracking
Rename internal private Github repository
Add informative description to Github page
Expand README.md with more specific information
Add information beyond current “Blockchains are Magic”
Add getting started sections and info on cloning/forking the project
Add installation details
Add uninstall process
Add unit, functional, and integration test information
Detail how to contribute and get involved
Describe the git workflow that the project will use
Move to public, non-Disney git repository (Github or Bitbucket)
Obtain Disney Open Source Committee approval for release
On top of meeting the above criteria, as part of the process, the maintainer of the project had to receive the codebase on their own personal email and create accounts for maintenance (e.g. Github) with non-Disney accounts. Given the fact that the project spanned multiple business units, Roets was individually responsible for its ongoing maintenance. Because of this, he proposed in the open source application to create a non-profit organization to hold the IP and maintain the project. This was approved by Disney. The Disney Open Source Committee approved the application known as OSSRELEASE-10, and the code was released on October 2, 2016. Disney decided to not issue a press release. Original OSSRELASE-10 document
Taproot! Everybody wants to have it, somebody wants to make it, nobody knows how to get it! (If you are asking why everybody wants it, see: Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?) (Pedants: I mostly elide over lockin times) Briefly, Taproot is that neat new thing that gets us:
Multisignatures (n-of-n, k-of-n) that are just 1 signature (1-of-1) in length!! (MuSig/Schnorr)
Better privacy!! If all contract participants can agree, just use a multisignature. If there is a dispute, show the contract publicly and have the Bitcoin network resolve it (Taproot/MAST).
Activation lets devs work get back to work on the even newer stuff like!!!
Cross-input signature aggregation!! (transaction with multiple inputs can have a single signature for all inputs) --- needs Schnorr, but some more work needed to ensure that the interactions with SCRIPT are okay.
Block validation - Schnorr signatures for all taproot spends in a block can be validated in a single operation instead of for each transaction!! Speed up validation and maybe we can actually afford to increase block sizes (maybe)!!
SIGHASH_ANYPREVOUT - you know, for Decker-Russell-Osuntokun ("eltoo") magic!!!
OP_CHECKTEMPLATEVERIFY - vaulty vaults without requiring storing signatures, just transaction details!!
So yes, let's activate taproot!
The SegWit Wars
The biggest problem with activating Taproot is PTSD from the previous softfork, SegWit. Pieter Wuille, one of the authors of the current Taproot proposal, has consistently held the position that he will not discuss activation, and will accept whatever activation process is imposed on Taproot. Other developers have expressed similar opinions. So what happened with SegWit activation that was so traumatic? SegWit used the BIP9 activation method. Let's dive into BIP9!
bit - A field in the block header, the nVersion, has a number of bits. By setting a particular bit, the miner making the block indicates that it has upgraded its software to support a particular soft fork. The bit parameter for a BIP9 activation is which bit in this nVersion is used to indicate that the miner has upgraded software for a particular soft fork.
timeout - a time limit, expressed as an end date. If this timeout is reached without sufficient number of miners signaling that they upgraded, then the activation fails and Bitcoin Core goes back to the drawing board.
Now there are other parameters (name, starttime) but they are not anywhere near as important as the above two. A number that is not a parameter, is 95%. Basically, activation of a BIP9 softfork is considered as actually succeeding if at least 95% of blocks in the last 2 weeks had the specified bit in the nVersion set. If less than 95% had this bit set before the timeout, then the upgrade fails and never goes into the network. This is not a parameter: it is a constant defined by BIP9, and developers using BIP9 activation cannot change this. So, first some simple questions and their answers:
Why not just set a day when everyone starts imposing the new rules of the softfork?
This was done classically (in the days when Satoshi was still among us). But this might argued to put too much power to developers, since there would be no way to reject an upgrade without possible bad consequences. For example, developers might package an upgrade that the users do not want, together with vital security bugfixes. Either you live without vital security bugfixes and hire some other developers to fix it for you (which can be difficult, presumably the best developers are already the ones working on the codebase) or you get the vital security bugfixes and implicitly support the upgrade you might not want.
Sure, you could fork the code yourself (the ultimate threat in the FOSS world) and hire another set of developers who aren't assholes to do the dreary maintenance work of fixing security bugs, but Bitcoin needs strong bug-for-bug compatibility so everyone should really congregate around a single codebase.
Basically: even the devs do not want this power, because they fear being coerced into putting "upgrades" that are detrimental to users. Satoshi got a pass because nobody knew who he was and how to coerce him.
Suppose the threshold were lower, like 51%. If so, after activation, somebody can disrupt the Bitcoin network by creating a transaction that is valid under the pre-softfork rules, but are invalid under the post-softfork rules. Upgraded nodes would reject it, but 49% of miners would accept it and include it in a block (which makes the block invalid) And then the same 49% would accept the invalid block and build on top of that, possibly creating a short chain of doomed invalid blocks that confirm an invalid spend. This can confuse SPV wallets, who might see multiple confirmations of a transaction and accept the funds, but later find that in fact it is invalid under the now-activated softfork rules.
Thus, a very high threshold was imposed. 95% is considered safe. 50% is definitely not safe. Due to variance in the mining process, 80% could also be potentially unsafe (i.e. 80% of blocks signaling might have a good chance of coming from only 60% of miners), so a threshold of 95% was considered "safe enough for Bitcoin work".
Why have a timeout that disables the upgrade?
Before BIP9, what was used was either flag day or BIP34. BIP34 had no flag day of activation or a bit, instead, it was just a 95% threshold to signal an nVersion value greater than a specific value. Actually, it was two thresholds: at 75%, blocks with the new nVersion would have the new softfork rules imposed, but at 95% blocks with the old nVersion would be rejected (and only the new blocks, with the new softfork rules, were accepted). For one, between 75% and 95%, there was a situation where the softfork was only "partially imposed", only blocks signaling the new rules would actually have those rules, but blocks with the old rules were still valid. This was fine for BIP34, which only added rules for miners with negligible use for non-miners.
The reasons miners signalled support was because they felt they were being pressured to signal support. So they signalled support, with plans to actually upgrade later, but because of the widespread signalling, the new BIP66 version locked in before upgrade plans were finished. Thus, the timeout that disables the upgrade was added in BIP9 to allow miners an escape hatch.
The Great Battles of the SegWit Wars
SegWit not only fixed transaction malleability, it also created a practical softforkable blocksize increase that also rebalanced weights so that the cost of spending a UTXO is about the same as the cost of creating UTXOs (and spending UTXOs is "better" since it limits the size of the UTXO set that every fullnode has to maintain). So SegWit was written, the activation was decided to be BIP9, and then.... miner signalling stalled at below 75%. Thus were the Great SegWit Wars started.
BIP9 Feature Hostage
If you are a miner with at least 5% global hashpower, you can hold a BIP9-activated softfork hostage. You might even secretly want the softfork to actually push through. But you might want to extract concession from the users and the developers. Like removing the halvening. Or raising or even removing the block size caps (which helps larger miners more than smaller miners, making it easier to become a bigger fish that eats all the smaller fishes). Or whatever. With BIP9, you can hold the softfork hostage. You just hold out and refuse to signal. You tell everyone you will signal, if and only if certain concessions are given to you. This ability by miners to hold a feature hostage was enabled because of the miner-exit allowed by the timeout on BIP9. Prior to that, miners were considered little more than expendable security guards, paid for the risk they take to secure the network, but not special in the grand scheme of Bitcoin.
ASICBoost was a novel way of optimizing SHA256 mining, by taking advantage of the structure of the 80-byte header that is hashed in order to perform proof-of-work. The details of ASICBoost are out-of-scope here but you can read about it elsewhere Here is a short summary of the two types of ASICBoost, relevant to the activation discussion.
Overt ASICBoost - Manipulates the unused bits in nVersion to reduce power consumption in mining.
Covert ASICBoost - Manipulates the order of transactions in the block to reduce power consumption in mining.
Now, "overt" means "obvious", while "covert" means hidden. Overt ASICBoost is obvious because nVersion bits that are not currently in use for BIP9 activations are usually 0 by default, so setting those bits to 1 makes it obvious that you are doing something weird (namely, Overt ASICBoost). Covert ASICBoost is non-obvious because the order of transactions in a block are up to the miner anyway, so the miner rearranging the transactions in order to get lower power consumption is not going to be detected. Unfortunately, while Overt ASICBoost was compatible with SegWit, Covert ASICBoost was not. This is because, pre-SegWit, only the block header Merkle tree committed to the transaction ordering. However, with SegWit, another Merkle tree exists, which commits to transaction ordering as well. Covert ASICBoost would require more computation to manipulate two Merkle trees, obviating the power benefits of Covert ASICBoost anyway. Now, miners want to use ASICBoost (indeed, about 60->70% of current miners probably use the Overt ASICBoost nowadays; if you have a Bitcoin fullnode running you will see the logs with lots of "60 of last 100 blocks had unexpected versions" which is exactly what you would see with the nVersion manipulation that Overt ASICBoost does). But remember: ASICBoost was, at around the time, a novel improvement. Not all miners had ASICBoost hardware. Those who did, did not want it known that they had ASICBoost hardware, and wanted to do Covert ASICBoost! But Covert ASICBoost is incompatible with SegWit, because SegWit actually has two Merkle trees of transaction data, and Covert ASICBoost works by fudging around with transaction ordering in a block, and recomputing two Merkle Trees is more expensive than recomputing just one (and loses the ASICBoost advantage). Of course, those miners that wanted Covert ASICBoost did not want to openly admit that they had ASICBoost hardware, they wanted to keep their advantage secret because miners are strongly competitive in a very tight market. And doing ASICBoost Covertly was just the ticket, but they could not work post-SegWit. Fortunately, due to the BIP9 activation process, they could hold SegWit hostage while covertly taking advantage of Covert ASICBoost!
UASF: BIP148 and BIP8
When the incompatibility between Covert ASICBoost and SegWit was realized, still, activation of SegWit stalled, and miners were still not openly claiming that ASICBoost was related to non-activation of SegWit. Eventually, a new proposal was created: BIP148. With this rule, 3 months before the end of the SegWit timeout, nodes would reject blocks that did not signal SegWit. Thus, 3 months before SegWit timeout, BIP148 would force activation of SegWit. This proposal was not accepted by Bitcoin Core, due to the shortening of the timeout (it effectively times out 3 months before the initial SegWit timeout). Instead, a fork of Bitcoin Core was created which added the patch to comply with BIP148. This was claimed as a User Activated Soft Fork, UASF, since users could freely download the alternate fork rather than sticking with the developers of Bitcoin Core. Now, BIP148 effectively is just a BIP9 activation, except at its (earlier) timeout, the new rules would be activated anyway (instead of the BIP9-mandated behavior that the upgrade is cancelled at the end of the timeout). BIP148 was actually inspired by the BIP8 proposal (the link here is a historical version; BIP8 has been updated recently, precisely in preparation for Taproot activation). BIP8 is basically BIP9, but at the end of timeout, the softfork is activated anyway rather than cancelled. This removed the ability of miners to hold the softfork hostage. At best, they can delay the activation, but not stop it entirely by holding out as in BIP9. Of course, this implies risk that not all miners have upgraded before activation, leading to possible losses for SPV users, as well as again re-pressuring miners to signal activation, possibly without the miners actually upgrading their software to properly impose the new softfork rules.
BIP91, SegWit2X, and The Aftermath
BIP148 inspired countermeasures, possibly from the Covert ASiCBoost miners, possibly from concerned users who wanted to offer concessions to miners. To this day, the common name for BIP148 - UASF - remains an emotionally-charged rallying cry for parts of the Bitcoin community. One of these was SegWit2X. This was brokered in a deal between some Bitcoin personalities at a conference in New York, and thus part of the so-called "New York Agreement" or NYA, another emotionally-charged acronym. The text of the NYA was basically:
Set up a new activation threshold at 80% signalled at bit 4 (vs bit 1 for SegWit).
When this 80% signalling was reached, miners would require that bit 1 for SegWit be signalled to achive the 95% activation needed for SegWit.
If the bit 4 signalling reached 80%, increase the block weight limit from the SegWit 4000000 to the SegWit2X 8000000, 6 months after bit 1 activation.
The first item above was coded in BIP91. Unfortunately, if you read the BIP91, independently of NYA, you might come to the conclusion that BIP91 was only about lowering the threshold to 80%. In particular, BIP91 never mentions anything about the second point above, it never mentions that bit 4 80% threshold would also signal for a later hardfork increase in weight limit. Because of this, even though there are claims that NYA (SegWit2X) reached 80% dominance, a close reading of BIP91 shows that the 80% dominance was only for SegWit activation, without necessarily a later 2x capacity hardfork (SegWit2X). This ambiguity of bit 4 (NYA says it includes a 2x capacity hardfork, BIP91 says it does not) has continued to be a thorn in blocksize debates later. Economically speaking, Bitcoin futures between SegWit and SegWit2X showed strong economic dominance in favor of SegWit (SegWit2X futures were traded at a fraction in value of SegWit futures: I personally made a tidy but small amount of money betting against SegWit2X in the futures market), so suggesting that NYA achieved 80% dominance even in mining is laughable, but the NYA text that ties bit 4 to SegWit2X still exists. Historically, BIP91 triggered which caused SegWit to activate before the BIP148 shorter timeout. BIP148 proponents continue to hold this day that it was the BIP148 shorter timeout and no-compromises-activate-on-August-1 that made miners flock to BIP91 as a face-saving tactic that actually removed the second clause of NYA. NYA supporters keep pointing to the bit 4 text in the NYA and the historical activation of BIP91 as a failed promise by Bitcoin developers.
We have discussed BIP8: roughly, it has bit and timeout, if 95% of miners signal bit it activates, at the end of timeout it activates. (EDIT: BIP8 has had recent updates: at the end of timeout it can now activate or fail. For the most part, in the below text "BIP8", means BIP8-and-activate-at-timeout, and "BIP9" means BIP8-and-fail-at-timeout) So let's take a look at Modern Softfork Activation!
Modern Softfork Activation
This is a more complex activation method, composed of BIP9 and BIP8 as supcomponents.
First have a 12-month BIP9 (fail at timeout).
If the above fails to activate, have a 6-month discussion period during which users and developers and miners discuss whether to continue to step 3.
Have a 24-month BIP8 (activate at timeout).
The total above is 42 months, if you are counting: 3.5 years worst-case activation. The logic here is that if there are no problems, BIP9 will work just fine anyway. And if there are problems, the 6-month period should weed it out. Finally, miners cannot hold the feature hostage since the 24-month BIP8 period will exist anyway.
PSA: Being Resilient to Upgrades
Software is very birttle. Anyone who has been using software for a long time has experienced something like this:
You hear a new version of your favorite software has a nice new feature.
Excited, you install the new version.
You find that the new version has subtle incompatibilities with your current workflow.
You are sad and downgrade to the older version.
You find out that the new version has changed your files in incompatible ways that the old version cannot work with anymore.
You tearfully reinstall the newer version and figure out how to get your lost productivity now that you have to adapt to a new workflow
If you are a technically-competent user, you might codify your workflow into a bunch of programs. And then you upgrade one of the external pieces of software you are using, and find that it has a subtle incompatibility with your current workflow which is based on a bunch of simple programs you wrote yourself. And if those simple programs are used as the basis of some important production system, you hve just screwed up because you upgraded software on an important production system. And well, one of the issues with new softfork activation is that if not enough people (users and miners) upgrade to the newest Bitcoin software, the security of the new softfork rules are at risk. Upgrading software of any kind is always a risk, and the more software you build on top of the software-being-upgraded, the greater you risk your tower of software collapsing while you change its foundations. So if you have some complex Bitcoin-manipulating system with Bitcoin somewhere at the foundations, consider running two Bitcoin nodes:
One is a "stable-version" Bitcoin node. Once it has synced, set it up to connect=x.x.x.x to the second node below (so that your ISP bandwidth is only spent on the second node). Use this node to run all your software: it's a stable version that you don't change for long periods of time. Enable txiindex, disable pruning, whatever your software needs.
The other is an "always-up-to-date" Bitcoin Node. Keep its stoarge down with pruning (initially sync it off the "stable-version" node). You can't use blocksonly if your "stable-version" node needs to send transactions, but otherwise this "always-up-to-date" Bitcoin node can be kept as a low-resource node, so you can run both nodes in the same machine.
When a new Bitcoin version comes up, you just upgrade the "always-up-to-date" Bitcoin node. This protects you if a future softfork activates, you will only receive valid Bitcoin blocks and transactions. Since this node has nothing running on top of it, it is just a special peer of the "stable-version" node, any software incompatibilities with your system software do not exist. Your "stable-version" Bitcoin node remains the same version until you are ready to actually upgrade this node and are prepared to rewrite most of the software you have running on top of it due to version compatibility problems. When upgrading the "always-up-to-date", you can bring it down safely and then start it later. Your "stable-version" wil keep running, disconnected from the network, but otherwise still available for whatever queries. You do need some system to stop the "always-up-to-date" node if for any reason the "stable-version" goes down (otherwisee if the "always-up-to-date" advances its pruning window past what your "stable-version" has, the "stable-version" cannot sync afterwards), but if you are technically competent enough that you need to do this, you are technically competent enough to write such a trivial monitor program (EDIT: gmax notes you can adjust the pruning window by RPC commands to help with this as well). This recommendation is from gmaxwell on IRC, by the way.
New England New England 6 States Songs: https://www.reddit.com/newengland/comments/er8wxd/new_england_6_states_songs/ NewEnglandcoin Symbol: NENG NewEnglandcoin is a clone of Bitcoin using scrypt as a proof-of-work algorithm with enhanced features to protect against 51% attack and decentralize on mining to allow diversified mining rigs across CPUs, GPUs, ASICs and Android phones. Mining Algorithm: Scrypt with RandomSpike. RandomSpike is 3rd generation of Dynamic Difficulty (DynDiff) algorithm on top of scrypt. 1 minute block targets base difficulty reset: every 1440 blocks subsidy halves in 2.1m blocks (~ 2 to 4 years) 84,000,000,000 total maximum NENG 20000 NENG per block Pre-mine: 1% - reserved for dev fund ICO: None RPCPort: 6376 Port: 6377 NewEnglandcoin has dogecoin like supply at 84 billion maximum NENG. This huge supply insures that NENG is suitable for retail transactions and daily use. The inflation schedule of NengEnglandcoin is actually identical to that of Litecoin. Bitcoin and Litecoin are already proven to be great long term store of value. The Litecoin-like NENG inflation schedule will make NewEnglandcoin ideal for long term investment appreciation as the supply is limited and capped at a fixed number Bitcoin Fork - Suitable for Home Hobbyists NewEnglandcoin core wallet continues to maintain version tag of "Satoshi v0.8.7.5" because NewEnglandcoin is very much an exact clone of bitcoin plus some mining feature changes with DynDiff algorithm. NewEnglandcoin is very suitable as lite version of bitcoin for educational purpose on desktop mining, full node running and bitcoin programming using bitcoin-json APIs. The NewEnglandcoin (NENG) mining algorithm original upgrade ideas were mainly designed for decentralization of mining rigs on scrypt, which is same algo as litecoin/dogecoin. The way it is going now is that NENG is very suitable for bitcoin/litecoin/dogecoin hobbyists who can not , will not spend huge money to run noisy ASIC/GPU mining equipments, but still want to mine NENG at home with quiet simple CPU/GPU or with a cheap ASIC like FutureBit Moonlander 2 USB or Apollo pod on solo mining setup to obtain very decent profitable results. NENG allows bitcoin litecoin hobbyists to experience full node running, solo mining, CPU/GPU/ASIC for a fun experience at home at cheap cost without breaking bank on equipment or electricity. MIT Free Course - 23 lectures about Bitcoin, Blockchain and Finance (Fall,2018) https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUl4u3cNGP63UUkfL0onkxF6MYgVa04Fn CPU Minable Coin Because of dynamic difficulty algorithm on top of scrypt, NewEnglandcoin is CPU Minable. Users can easily set up full node for mining at Home PC or Mac using our dedicated cheetah software. Research on the first forked 50 blocks on v1.2.0 core confirmed that ASIC/GPU miners mined 66% of 50 blocks, CPU miners mined the remaining 34%. NENG v1.4.0 release enabled CPU mining inside android phones. Youtube Video Tutorial How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdOoPvAjzlE How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHnRJvJRzZg How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in macOS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zj7NLMeNSOQ Decentralization and Community Driven NewEnglandcoin is a decentralized coin just like bitcoin. There is no boss on NewEnglandcoin. Nobody nor the dev owns NENG. We know a coin is worth nothing if there is no backing from community. Therefore, we as dev do not intend to make decision on this coin solely by ourselves. It is our expectation that NewEnglandcoin community will make majority of decisions on direction of this coin from now on. We as dev merely view our-self as coin creater and technical support of this coin while providing NENG a permanent home at ShorelineCrypto Exchange. Twitter Airdrop Follow NENG twitter and receive 100,000 NENG on Twitter Airdrop to up to 1000 winners Graphic Redesign Bounty Top one award: 90.9 million NENG Top 10 Winners: 500,000 NENG / person Event Timing: March 25, 2019 - Present Event Address: NewEnglandcoin DISCORD at: https://discord.gg/UPeBwgs Please complete above Twitter Bounty requirement first. Then follow Below Steps to qualify for the Bounty: (1) Required: submit your own designed NENG logo picture in gif, png jpg or any other common graphic file format into DISCORD "bounty-submission" board (2) Optional: submit a second graphic for logo or any other marketing purposes into "bounty-submission" board. (3) Complete below form. Please limit your submission to no more than two total. Delete any wrongly submitted or undesired graphics in the board. Contact DISCORD u/honglu69#5911 or u/krypton#6139 if you have any issues. Twitter Airdrop/Graphic Redesign bounty sign up: https://goo.gl/forms/L0vcwmVi8c76cR7m1 Milestones
Sep 3, 2018 - Genesis block was mined, NewEnglandcoin created
Sep 8, 2018 - github source uploaded, Window wallet development work started
Sep 11,2018 - Window Qt Graphic wallet completed
Sep 12,2018 - NewEnglandcoin Launched in both Bitcointalk forum and Marinecoin forum
Sep 14,2018 - NewEnglandcoin is listed at ShorelineCrypto Exchange
Sep 17,2018 - Block Explorer is up
Nov 23,2018 - New Source/Wallet Release v1.1.1 - Enabled Dynamic Addjustment on Mining Hashing Difficulty
Nov 28,2018 - NewEnglandcoin became CPU minable coin
Nov 30,2018 - First Retail Real Life usage for NewEnglandcoin Announced
Dec 28,2018 - Cheetah_Cpuminer under Linux is released
Dec 31,2018 - NENG Technical Whitepaper is released
Jan 2,2019 - Cheetah_Cpuminer under Windows is released
Jan 12,2019 - NENG v1.1.2 is released to support MacOS GUI CLI Wallet
Jan 13,2019 - Cheetah_CpuMiner under Mac is released
Feb 11,2019 - NewEnglandcoin v1.2.0 Released, Anti-51% Attack, Anti-instant Mining after Hard Fork
Mar 16,2019 - NewEnglandcoin v184.108.40.206 Released - Ubuntu 18.04 Wallet Binary Files
Apr 7, 2019 - NENG Report on Security, Decentralization, Valuation
Apr 21, 2019 - NENG Fiat Project is Launched by ShorelineCrypto
Sep 1, 2019 - Shoreline Tradingbot project is Launched by ShorelineCrypto
Dec 19, 2019 - Shoreline Tradingbot v1.0 is Released by ShorelineCrypto
Jan 30, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG v1.3.0 Hardfork Proposed
Feb 24, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG core v1.3.0 Released
Jun 19, 2020 - Linux scripts for Futurebit Moonlander2 USB ASIC on solo mining Released
Jul 15, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Released for Android Mining and Ubuntu 20.04 support
Jul 21, 2020 - NENG v220.127.116.11 Released for MacOS Wallet Upgrade with Catalina
Jul 30, 2020 - NENG v18.104.22.168 Released for Linux Wallet Upgrade with 8 Distros
Aug 11, 2020 - NENG v22.214.171.124 Released for Android arm64 Upgrade, Chromebook Support
Aug 30, 2020 - NENG v126.96.36.199 Released for Android/Chromebook with armhf, better hardware support
2018 Q3 - Birth of NewEnglandcoin, window/linux wallet - Done
2018 Q4 - Decentralization Phase I
Blockchain Upgrade - Dynamic hashing algorithm I - Done
Cheetah Version I- CPU Mining Automation Tool on Linux - Done
2019 Q1 - Decentralization Phase II
Cheetah Version II- CPU Mining Automation Tool on Window/Linux - Done
Blockchain Upgrade Dynamic hashing algorithm II - Done
2019 Q2 - Fiat Phase I
Assessment of Risk of 51% Attack on NENG - done
Launch of Fiat USD/NENG offering for U.S. residents - done
Initiation of Mobile Miner Project - Done
2019 Q3 - Shoreline Tradingbot, Mobile Project
Evaluation and planning of Mobile Miner Project - on Hold
Initiation of Trading Bot Project - Done
2019 Q4 - Shoreline Tradingbot
Shoreline tradingbot Release v1.0 - Done
2020 Q1 - Evaluate NENG core, Mobile Wallet Phase I
NENG core Decentralization Security Evaluation for v1.3.x - Done
Light Mobile Wallet Project Initiation, Evaluation
2020 Q2 - NENG Core, Mobile Wallet Phase II
NENG core Decentralization Security Hardfork on v1.3.x - Scrypt RandomSpike
Light Mobile Wallet Project Design, Coding
2020 Q3 - NENG core, NENG Mobile Wallet Phase II
Review on results of v1.3.x, NENG core Dev Decision on v1.4.x, Hardfork If needed
Light Mobile Wallet Project testing, alpha Release
2020 Q4 - Mobile Wallet Phase III
Light Mobile Wallet Project Beta Release
Light Mobile Wallet Server Deployment Evaluation and Decision
Updated AUGUST 2020 This method works, Guaranteed! Guaranteed Profit! ($50 Your First Day, and 30$ to 50$+ Daily Afterwards) No Investment required 100% Auto-pilot Takes Only 10 Minutes to Set-Up Easy To Follow Guide\Tutorial Newbie Friendly It is the only method that works. Step 1: Firstly, sign up here: This Website Pays Bitcoins for every box opened. Also, if anyone does a free signup at your referral link you get around 35 -38 gems (one gem to redeem for each box) along with 30% amount of gems for every offer they complete. The Link Above is my Referral link, which By Signing Up will Give you 50 Gems Instead of the Original Starting amount of 35 Gems Automate opening Of the Boxes with the Following Script: https://greasyfork.org/en/scripts/382073-lootbits-io/code The Above Script is a Tamper monkey Script, Tamper monkey is a Browser Extension Usually Used to Automate Simple User Activity. Payment Proof: http://paymentproof.club/?tag=lootbits-io Let’s Start: https://lootbits.io/?invite=1990045 Step 3: The best way now to spread our referral link is through Money making sites Step 4: Have you ever heard of: https://www.scribd.com/ Basically scribd.com is a website that allows people to share and download e-books for free. Make sure that you simply transfer the PDF together with your referral link there. You will gain 30-100 downloads daily if you transfer the PDF together with your referral here. ipsum Step 3: Spread the link around. (You will get a lot of points). Doing this you'll begin obtaining like 3000-5000 or maybe a lot of downloads daily to your eBook, and like 1000- 4000 of the downloaders will join your referral. This will make you 1-2 BTC in a week (You will make more money if you use more time to setup this Auto-Pilot) Step 8: Sit back and watch your cash rolling In. Step 9: Post Your payment proof at the thread from wherever you bought This eBook. Good Luck
How to earn money on timebucks 2020, Earn free BTC
How to make money on timebucks? Hello. I’m Nam! If this is a question when you join timebucks, then Nam will help you answer this question. How to earn money on timebucks? Ok! Let’s start. After reading this article, questions such as:
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I. 12 ways to make money on timebucks make $ 4,000/ month
Ok, on timebucks, you absolutely can make money with it in 12 ways, however Nam will highlight you 3 ways that can help you make the most money possible. Learn 12 ways to earn timebucks below to optimize your income.
1, Make money from surveys
There are many survey tasks for you to do, if you work hard one day you can also earn $ 5 – $ 10. The surveys are updated hourly, for example, have 20 surveys and the total amount of these 20 surveys is $ 20. This amount is equally divided among all participants. That means not only you do it, you do it slowly, so if you want to make money on timebucks by surveying, you must hurry. The number of surveys will vary from country to country, if you’re in a country where you don’t have a lot of surveys, don’t worry, you can still earn money on timebucks, by another means. 📷
2, Make money with viewing content
Make money on timebucks with content tabs, how? Watching content to make money on timebucks is quite simple, so the amount received is not high. After clicking on the content to watch you will be redirected to the page or video to watch. Watch content including watching videos and watching texts. You need to watch for a fixed time. For example, see the ad on the blog of a certain sales page for 20s. Or watch a certain youtobe video for 30 seconds. In Slideshows tab you will have to see many pages containing ads to receive money. 📷
3, Sign up for the site and get paid
Partners on timebucks need you to sign up and be able to then fancy and use their services. You will register and wait for approval, or you can send a screenshot as proof of approval for faster approval. They pay for timebucks and timebucks return a part to you, but this is not much. Sign up for Timebucks get $ 1 now
4, Earn money on tik tok with timebucks
This is how I hope you will do 100% energy, to make money on timebucks. In timebucks there are very basic instructions including the following steps.
Download the tiktok app to your phone.
Install profile picture, choose theme for tiktok.
Enter your username and 4-digit timebucks for you to verify you have integrated your account.
Participate in building fanbase.
Timebucks will give you the video from the advertiser, your job is to upload it to your tik tok channel, the video posting time is up to 24 hours. After the video is posted, you just need to wait for the timer, timebucks will verify the video has been posted and you get a commission, very simple, right?
5, Watch videos and get bonuses
Initially you will see the video tutorial on basic operations in timebucks, or video tutorials on making money on timebucks. You should watch all of these videos to learn about timebucks, as well as how to make a lot of money. They will then share you different videos, depending on the video, and the amount may differ.
6, Make money by timebucks referral
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7, Make money with timebucks in Offerwalls
This is an interesting experience where you can get deals, or do surveys with many different websites. You can get paid to download apps, register websites, check products for free … There are several quests that can give good income. 📷
The great thing is you can earn up to $ 10, with just one click. Complete any 10 missions, and play the game of chance, you can earn up to $ 10. Your F1 member also plays this game, you get 50% of the money he rolls. Either way, you will get money in this game.
9, AliExpress – Affiliate Marketing.
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This is a simple job, and you can do it all day. But this is a very low paying job, you should not waste time on it. You will earn $0.003 for every 20 Captcha’s you successfully complete.
In this task, you will get paid to complete a fun ‘would you rather’ voting quiz. You will be redirected to a third party website to complete this task. Rates vary and are displayed on the MoreQuizTime website. TimeBucks is giving 85% revenue share to the user for this offer, which is the highest rate in the world out of all the GPT/PTC websites. That means, if you do this task on any other site, you are losing money! We also have a daily ladder competition where the top 50 people who do the most completions will receive a $0.20 bonus! You can see the stats below for the ladder. Sign up for Timebucks get $ 1 now
12, Engage – Make money by watching, downloading and rating videos.
In this task, you will get paid to watch specific Youtube videos. This task is 95% automated as once the video starts, you can perform other work in another browser tab so it’s passive income. You will be redirected to a third party website called Engaged Hits and then you will be prompted to register with your gmail email. You will land on their ‘Earn Money’ page that has a very clear step by step video and PDF tutorial on how to install their Chrome Developer extension and earn by watching videos. You will get paid for every 10 videos watched. Each time you watch a video, the counter on this page will go up. Please watch the embedded video below which will walk you step by step what to expect so you can get up and earning immediately. Rates vary and are displayed on the Chrome extension. TimeBucks is giving a 100% revenue share to the user for this offer, which is the highest rate in the world out of all the GPT/PTC/Faucet websites. That means, if you do this task on any other site, you are losing money! We have TWO BONUSES! Bonus #1: Loyalty Bonus If you watch 20+ videos (2 rounds of 10) for 30 days you will receive a $1.00 bonus! You can see the stats below. Once you have finished watching the tutorial, click the green “Start Engage” button underneath. Bonus #2: Video Review After you have completed the 30 days and already earned your $1.00 loyalty bonus, you can now earn another $5.00! The FIRST 100 people that send in their review or testimonial of your experience using Timebucks will earn $5.00. This is not a raffle. You will earn it if you are among the first 100 people. The winners will have their videos displayed on this page so you can keep track how many have been submitted. The video however must be of high quality. It can be a screenshare of a video of yourself.
13, Earn money on timebucks with Sweepstakes
TimeBucks has a weekly sweepstake prize give away where a total prize pool of $500 is awarded to 30 winners each week. The winners are drawn at 12am Friday each week. Once the prizes are drawn, your entries will reset to 0. You can’t buy entries, instead you will get entries for free by performing various tasks around the site. Below you can see how many entries you will earn for the tasks performed: Logging in daily: 100 entriesAny task you do you will get 1 entry per $0.001 you earn: 1 entryReferring someone to TimeBucks: 200 entries Below is a list of prizes that will be won
1st – $250
2nd – $50
3rd – $30
4th to 10th – $10
11th to 30th – $5
This week I was lucky to receive $ 5, I find this lottery game interesting. You will be startled when adding $ 250 with just 100 lottery tickets. What do you think? Please feel free to share with me what you think. 📷
II. How to get referral links to Earn money on timebucks
To make money you must have an account and know how to get your reffer link, timebucks create a lot of landing page links for you to choose, to see which link is most likely to convert. If you still do not know the advantages of reffer system, you can see in this article. There are 3 ways to get links to promote to make money on timebucks. After logging in timebucks, we will go to “DASHBOARD” in position 1 to select the appropriate link. 📷 You can see the referral link in the red rectangle. This is the default link, not a high conversion page. In the left arrow position, when you click, will also have this default link. You copy and share to everyone. In the left arrow position, when you click, you are redirected to the landing page link, which has a higher conversion rate.
III. How to share referral links effectively?
Now you can share them on social networks like facebook, twitter … to introduce to friends and earn extra income, from timebucks. You can be a review of timebucks, on channels like blogs, youtobe … anywhere you can share. You can use advertising tools to reach customers, what about this opinion. You have another suggestion for me, I’m ready to listen. Sign up for Timebucks get $ 1 now
IV. How to withdraw money from timebucks
How to withdraw from timebucks? Timebucks they offer many ways to withdraw money like Payeer, bitcoins …. Depending on the geographical area, you can choose different ways to withdraw money.
V. How to share referral links effectively?
Building social media channels like facebook, fanpage, group, etc. Make youtobe channel, tiktok channel to share videos … Make a blog / website sharing content about timebucks, cleverly insert referral links Run advertising campaigns if you have a lot of capital to get started. Share now with 5 – 10 of your friends …
IV. Concluding remarks on the article “How to make money on timebucks 2020?”
Making money online on timebucks is completely real. How much you earn depends on how you plan to grow. Tips, see how to make money on the best timebucks below Number 1 – Affiliate Marketing – AliExpress Number 2 – Tiktok Number 3 – Referral Here are 3 ways that can help you earn $ 4,000 / month with timebucks. Money is not easy to find, how to do may show you, but determination is no one to help you. You should develop with the ways that I only have free time to do other tasks to optimize income. Thank you for reading the article, like and share if you find the article valuable. Sign up for Timebucks get $ 1 now
This is v69.0.0 (v68.0.0, v67.0.0, v66.0.0, v65.0.0, etc...) of our PDQ installers and includes all installers from the previous package with old versions removed. All packages:
...install silently and don't place desktop or quicklaunch shortcuts
...disable all auto-update, nag popup and stat-collection/telemetry "features" possible
...work with the free or paid version of PDQ Deploy but do not require it - each package can run standalone (e.g. from a thumb drive) or pushed with SCCM/GPO/etc if desired. PM me if you need assistance setting something like that up
Primary: Download the torrent. Secondary: Download the self-extracting archive from one of the repos:
Make sure the settings for your Sync folder look like this(or this if you're on v1.3.x). Specifically you need to enable DHT. Quaternary:(source code) The Github page contains all scripts and wrapper files used in the pack. Check it out if you want to see the code without downloading the full binary pack, or just steal them for your own use. Note that downloading from Github directly won't work - you need either this provided pack or go manually fetch all the binaries yourself in order to just plug them in and start working.
Installers: (Updates in bold. All installers are 64-bit unless otherwise marked)
7-Zip v19.00 (x86)
Adobe Acrobat Reader DC v19.021.20058
Adobe AIR v188.8.131.52
Adobe Flash Player v184.108.40.2061 (Chrome)
Adobe Flash Player v220.127.116.111 (Firefox)
Adobe Flash Player v18.104.22.1681 (IE / ActiveX)
Apple iTunes v22.214.171.124
CutePDF v3.0 (PDF printer) (x86) // REMOVED; Since Windows natively supports PDF printing now there's no reason to keep this in the pack
FileZilla Client v3.46.3
Gimp v2.10.14 (x86)
Google Chrome Enterprise v80.0.3987.87
Google Chrome Enterprise v80.0.3987.87 (x86)
Google Earth Pro v7.3.2
Java Development Kit 8 Update 231
Java Development Kit 8 Update 231 (x86)
Java Development Kit 11.0.6
Java Runtime 8 update 231
Java Runtime 8 update 231 (x86)
Java Runtime 10.0.2
KTS KypM Telnet/SSH Server v1.19c (x86)
Microsoft .NET Framework v3.5.1 SP1 (x86)
Microsoft Silverlight v5.1.50918.0
Mozilla Firefox v72.0.2
Mozilla Firefox v72.0.2 (x86)
Mozilla Firefox ESR v68.4.2
Mozilla Firefox ESR v68.4.2 (x86)
Mozilla Thunderbird v68.4.2 (x86)(customized; read notes)
USB Device Cleanup. Uninstalls non-present USB hubs, USB storage devices and their storage volumes, Disks, CD-ROM's, Floppies, WPD devices and deletes their registry items. Devices will re-initialize at next connection
Import all .XML files from the \job files directory into PDQ deploy (it should look roughly like this after you've imported them).
Copy all files from the \repository directory to wherever your repository is.
All jobs reference PDQ's $(Repository) variable, so make sure it's set in preferences.
Read the notes in the PDQ interface for each package, they explain exactly what that installer does. Basically, most packages use a .bat file to accomplish multi-step installs with the free version of PDQ. You can edit the batch files to see what they do; most just delete "All Users" desktop shortcuts and things like that. changelog-v##-updated-.txt has version and release history in addition to random notes where I complain about things like Reader DC and how much of a pain it is to build packages for.
Thunderbird is configured to use a global config file stored on a network share. This allows for settings changes en masse. By default it's set to check for config updates every 120 minutes.
You can change the config location, update frequency, OR disable this behavior entirely by editing thunderbird-custom-settings.js.
A copy of the config file is in the Thunderbird directory and is called thunderbird-global-settings.js
If you don't want any customizations, just edit Thunderbird's .bat file and comment out or delete all the lines mentioning the custom config files.
Microsoft Offline Updates - built using the excellent WSUS Offline tool. Please donate to them if you can, their team does excellent work.
In the folder \integrity verification the file checksums.txt is signed with my PGP key (0x07d1490f82a211a2, pubkey included). You can use this to verify package integrity. If you find a bug or glitch, PM me or post it here. Advice and comments are welcome and appreciated.
These packs will always be free and open-source, although donations are of course appreciated since all work done on them is in my spare time for free. If you feel like giving away your hard-earned cash to random strangers on the internet you may do so here: Patreon Bitcoin: 1Bfxpo1WqTGwRXZKrwYZV2zvJ4ggyj9GE1 Monero (preferred): 46ZUK4VDLLz3zapDw62UaS71ZfFBjH9uwhc8FeyocPhUHHsuxj5zfvpZpZcZFHWpxoXD99MVt6PnR9QfftXDV8s6CFAnPSo "Donotwithholdgoodfromthosetowhomitisdue,whenitisinyourpowertoact."
SKRILL(15€/10£) - VERSE €\£5 - CURVE(5£) - WORLDREMIT(25 euros, 30CAD, 35 AUD e.t.c.) - XENDPAY (10$/€\£, or equivalent in sending currency - unlimited) - TRANSFERGO(10£/12€) - TRANSFEWISE(5€) - CURRENCY FAIR(30€) - XAPO($10 IN BTC) - Celsius Network (UP TO $ 220 in BTC) - LUNO(25) - BITPANDA(10)
BE CAREFUL PLEASE - I WILL PERSONALLY PROVIDE YOU WITH MY UNIQUE LINKS AND PROMO CODES TO INSURE (PROTECT) OUR REWARDS. BANKS - BANKING SERVICES AND CRYPTOCURRENCIES – FREE MONEY - FREE CRYPTO -SKRILL(15€/10£) - VERSE €\£5 - CURVE(5£) - WORLDREMIT(25 euros, 30CAD, 35 AUD e.t.c.) - XENDPAY (10$/€\£, or equivalent in sending currency - unlimited) - TRANSFERGO(10£/12€) - TRANSFEWISE(5€) - CURRENCY FAIR(30€) - XAPO($10 IN BTC) - Celsius Network (UP TO $ 220 in BTC) - CRYPTO.COM ($50 in MCO) - IBANWALLET($25/25€) Bitpanda (10) Bitpanda (One of the mots known Crypto Currency Services)
PM Me for Referral Link (in order to protect both our rewards)
Verify your identity
Deposit at least €25 on your account via bank transfer
Buy €25 in cryptocurrency (for example Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH) or (USDC) for a more stable crypto)
Luno(25) Luno is a service to buy and sell cryptocurrencies. For new users: when buying €250 in BTC you get €15 free in BTC! Steps: Sign up through my link (send me a private message for my link and my code) Verify your ID (it should take a around 30mins-1hour) Fill in my code on the 'Rewards' page. If you get "This type of promotion code can only be applied once per person" then the code was already accepted during sign-up :) Buy €250 in Bitcoin. You can deposit through Visa, which is instant and has no fee (no MasterCard, since the fees eat up your bonus), bank transfer (using Revolut it should only take a couple of hours) or iDeal. After buying 250€ in Bitcoins the €15 in BTC will be credited to your account within a few minutes. Sell the Bitcoins and transfer the full amount back to your bank account. It is possible that you end up with a bit less than €265 because of fees, but this shouldn't be more than a few euros. In my case I ended up with €262.27 due to fees and BTC fluctuation. PM me for your bonus and enjoy! Iban Wallet ($25/25€) + 10 from me Step 1 : SEND ME A PERSONAL MESSAGE OR BID ME AS A COMMENT TO SEND YOU MY UNIQUE LINK Step 2 : Complete the sign up form and verify your ID. You only need a photo of it, no annoying calls to make. When it asks for a referral code, you should use mine. Deposit €1,000/$1,000 or more. You can use a credit card or bank transfer. Step 3 : You will immediately receive the bonus €25/$25. All €1,025/$1,025 can be immediately withdrawn. Full terms and conditions : https://www.ibanwallet.com/terms Xapo ($10 in BTC)+5 from me Xapo is a nice platform for investing in cryptocurrency. They have also offer a good referral bonus of $10 paid in BTC just for depositing $100 (±£80, ±€108 ) to your Xapo account. Here's how to get it:
SEND ME A PERSONAL MESSAGE OR BID ME AS A COMMENT TO SEND YOU MY UNIQUE LINK AND OPEN MY LINKON YOUR PHONE (must be done on your phone so it tracks properly) and download the app.
Finish your registration by providing your phone number, e-mail address and verify your identity. You will need a picture of your Passport/ID/Driver's license and a picture/PDF of any billwith your address.
Deposit €100 by a regular SEPA transfer. It's free to do it. You can also use your card for an instant deposit but it will charge you extra 2% for it.
Your bonus of $10 in BTC will be credited immediately after your transfer reaches your Xapo account. There is no need to invest your money or do anything else with it.
You can exchange your BTC to EUR and transfer it back to your bank account. T&C : https://static.xapo.com/terms/index.html Celsius Network (UP TO $60 in BTC)+ 5 from me Celsius Network is a cryptocurrency investment app where you can get 8-12% yearly return on your coins. You don't need to do anything with them - just keep them in your Celsius' wallet. They have a great referral program, which gives you $10for signing up with my link, depositing and keeping $200 worth of coins for 30 days. You will also get some percentage of interest paid from Celsius for your investment. They also have a lot of promotional codes which you can use to get up to $60 worth of bonuses paid in BTC. Here are all the steps for you to get your FREE $60:
SEND ME A PERSONAL MESSAGE OR BID ME AS A COMMENT TO SEND YOU MY UNIQUE LINK and use it when signing up on the app.
Verify your identity with a picture of your Passport/ID/Driver's license. It usually takes no more than 30 minutes.
3. In Celsius app go to 'Enter a promo code' and enter these codes (depending on the amount you're willing to deposit): · SPRING - $10 bonus paid in BTC when you deposit $100 and hold it for 30 days · POV- $10 bonus paid in BTC when you deposit $200 and hold it for 3 days · PAKMAN - $10 bonus paid in BTC when you deposit $100 and hold it for 30 days · SAGA - $10 bonus paid in BTC when you deposit $100 and hold it for 30 days · MINEABLE - $10 bonus paid in BTC when you deposit $100 and hold it for 30 days 4-Deposit crypto coins to your Celsius wallet. Make sure you entered the codes BEFORE your deposit. If you're not willing to risk with holding usual crypto coins (BTC/ETH/XRP/LTC etc.), which can gain or lose value, you can simply deposit one of the stablecoins (USDΤ/GUSD/TUSD/TGBP etc.), which will keep it's value. Buy your stablecoins on another cryptocurrency exchange platform. You can buy yourUSDΤon CRYPTO.COM. (Referral code for crypto.com – SEND ME A MESSAGE) Make sure you deposit your coins in one transaction (equivalent to $100 or $200). 5-Hold your coins for these required days. Afterwards just transfer your coins, together with your bonuses back to wherever you want it and cash them out. T&C: https://celsius.network/terms-of-use/ CRYPTO.COM ($50 in MCO) + 20 from me Crypto.com is a well-known cryptocurrency exchange, and is paying 50$ to stake your crypto on their platform for 6 month. Im paying you 25$ of my reward to make the deal even better! So to get the bonus you have to buy and stake 50 MCO on crypto.com you will lock the 50 MCO for 6 months, but the reward will be withdrawable as soon as you stake the 50 MCO - so you can withdraw your bonus instantly. Guide: 1. Sign up via my link - SEND ME A PERSONAL MESSAGE OR BID ME AS A COMMENT TO SEND YOU MY UNIQUE LINK 2. Verify your account via KYC - just follow the instructions ID will be necessary! 3. Go to “Card” in the app and make the buy and staking of MCO, you will now have unlocked your reward, make the last few steps to order the ruby steel card - this will get you, free spotify, 2% cashbacks and a lot more! 4. Sell and withdraw you reward or let the reward stay in your wallet as an investment - that’s totally up to you! 5. Write me a message so I can give you the extra 25$ to make this a great deal! T&C: https://blog.crypto.com/update-crypto-coms-bg50-both-get-50-referral-program/ CurrencyFair (30€) +10 from me CurrencyFair is a service to send money internationally (just like Skrill, WorldRemit, Xoom etc.). They have now increased the referral bonus to €50 for new users when making a transfer of at least €2000 (or equivalent in another currency, ~ £1765). SEND ME A PERSONAL MESSAGE OR BID ME AS A COMMENT TO SEND YOU MY UNIQUE LINK. It is super easy to be obtained. I have proofs of my rewards! You must send 2000 Euros and after that you are credited 50 Euros in your CurrencyFair Account (3 Euros fee to transfer to your personal bank). The steps for the registration are very easy. Follow my link, chose to send approximate 2030 or 2040 due to the gap that CurrecyFair holds between exchange rates, verify your account (need to attach two proofs of identity and one proof of your address or one proof of your identity and two proofs of your address) and make the transfer through your Revolut or Monese account. For example, send money from Revolut EU account to Revolut GB account. Finally, your net profil will be about 20 euros. T&C:https://www.currencyfair.com/express-deposits-terms-conditions/ Skrill (£10/€15 e.t.c.)+ 5 from me Skrill is a money transfer service, where you also get £10 referral discount for your first transfer. Skrill doesn't require any ID verification. Here are the steps to get your FREE£10: SEND ME A PERSONAL MESSAGE OR BID ME AS A COMMENT TO SEND YOU MY UNIQUE LINK
Choose the country where your other accountis and enter £100.
Complete all the details about your EUR account on the next page.
Make sure you have written my code before submitting the transfer so you will only have to pay £90 and will receive £100 to your account.
Finish the transfer by paying with your card. Easy as that.
It never took more than 24 hours for the money to reach my account. If you're an existing member on Skrill but have never used Skrill Money Transfer you can still enter my code for your first transfer and get the discount. Please note - it might not work for really old Skrill accounts but it's still worth trying. Here are the different options for countries outside of UK: EUR countries = minimum transfer of 150€ to get 15€ off transaction Canada = minimum transfer of 200$ to get 25$ off transaction. Australia = minimum transfer of 100$ to get 40$ off transaction South Africa = minimum transfer of 1500 ZAR to get 250 ZAR off transaction T&C:https://www.skrill.com/en/footeterms-conditions/skrillaccounttermsofuse/ VERSE - €\£1 From Verse (UK or EU) Verse is a money transfer service that has a generous reward for signing up. Steps are simple. How to get the reward? From Verse (UK or EU) Verse is a money transfer service that has a generous reward for signing up. Steps are simple. How to get the reward? [ HOW TO CLAIM MONEY ] STEP 1 - SEND ME A PERSONAL MESSAGE OR BID ME AS A COMMENT TO SEND YOU MY UNIQUE LINK. DO NOT DOWNLOAD THE APP AND REGISTER AS IT IS FOR NEW USERS ONLY STEP2 - Register using my link and load £20/€20 by linking your bank STEP3 - Send the money to a friend or relative, or if you need assistance you can send to me and I’ll send it right back. STEP4 - After both requirements are completed you can IMMEDIATELY claim your reward and withdrawal the money to your bank account. If there are any inquiries, feel free to message me. T&C:https://verse.me/en/terms CURVE (5£)+1 from me Curve is a great app where you can add all your debit and credit cards and spend from any of them just by choosing it with a tap of your finger. Here's how to get your FREE £5:
Download the Curve app on your phone. You can use this link ***SEND ME A PERSONAL MESSAGE OR BID ME AS A COMMENT TO SEND YOU MY UNIQUE LINK***
Make sure to enter my code when signing up to get FREE £5 after your first transaction.
Add one of your debit or credit cards in the app.
Wait for your Curve MasterCard to arrive by post (it's completely free) and make your first payment. I added my Revolut card and topped up my Revolut account with Curve card in order to activate the bonus, sono actual spending needed.You can also add your Curve card to PayPal and verify it. It will count as a transaction and will activate the bonus.
You will be awarded FREE £5, which you can spend anywhere with your Curve card.
T&C:https://www.curve.com/en/terms WORLDREMIT (Voucher code 25 euros, 30CAD, 35 AUD e.t.c.)+ 5 from me SEND ME A PERSONAL MESSAGE OR BID ME AS A COMMENT TO SEND YOU MY UNIQUE LINK I send money online with WorldRemit. I think you should too. If you join and send 125.00 EUR we'll each get a 25.00 EUR voucher. Also, use the code 3FREE. The first free transactions are fee-free. IF YOU YOU ARE NOT RESIDENT OF COUNTRY (ex. Belgium) WHERE YOU SEND MONEY TO AND DO NOT HAVE PHONE NUMBER (Belgium), BUT HAVE BELGIUM ACCOUNT, JUST FILL IN THE FIELDS WITH YOUR REAL INFORMATION. IT IS PASSED. Warming : What is the minimum send amount to qualify for Refer a Friend? (IN this link you can find Sending from / Minimum send amount / Voucher amount) T&C:https://www.worldremit.com/en/about-us/recipient-terms-conditions XENDPAY (10$/€\£, or equivalent in sending currency - unlimited)+ 4 from me It a trusted and really fast money transfer service, which offers **£10 referral reward (**£10/€10/$10 or equivalent in sending currency) (so called first transfer discount) if you haven’t tried their service yet. Here are the steps to get your **FREE (**£10/€10/$10):
SEND ME A PERSONAL MESSAGE OR BID ME AS A COMMENT TO SEND YOU MY UNIQUE LINK
Verify your identity with a pictureof your Passport/ID/Driver’s license and your address with a picture of an utility bill. It took me around 4 hours to get verified, which is not too long. It was even faster for others I know.
Make your first transfer of £100 or more)(minimum sending amount is £100/€100/$100, or equivalent in sending currency) . Click ‘Send Money’ on the Dashboard. On the next page choose that you’re sending money from UK to the country where your EUR account is and write 0 next to ‘Transfer Fee’, so it becomes free. You will see £10 discount applied, which means that you will have to pay £90 for this transfer and will receive equivalent to £100 in Euros.
Enter your own personal details and your EUR account details.
Pay with your card or bank transfer.
Your money should reach your account within 1 business day. T&C:https://xendpay.com/xendpay-terms-and-conditions/ TRANSFERGO (10£) + 5 from me Get £10 bonus using my referral code: Enter my code when signing up to get your £10 bonus. Once you’ve transferred over £50 or equivalent, you’ll receive your £10 cashback. I love using TransferGo to send money abroad! Try it for FREE yourself! After the identity verification you will receive a code for fee-free transfer. The procedure takes about 30 minutes to be completed. We recommend reading our terms in full. T&C: https://www.transfergo.com/en/terms-and-conditions TRANSFERWISE (PROVIDE YOU WITH 5€ IF YOU DO A TRANSFER OVER 250) TransferWise provides you with a first transfer of up to 500 GBP fee-free. And, as always — you’ll get the real exchange rate whenever you send money abroad. Instant transfer. In my case, I used my Revolut card (physical or virtual) and sent money (250€) from my EU Revolut account to GBP Revolut account. The money transfer was completed after 10 second and exchanged Pounds into Euro without losing anything. SEND ME A PERSONAL MESSAGE OR BID ME A S A COMMENT TO SEND YOU MY UNIQUE LINK. T&C: https://transferwise.com/terms-and-conditions
https://preview.redd.it/z0xjotzxta451.png?width=724&format=png&auto=webp&s=a0c223a017dd58aa54d506e51d041f5820db4a3b Everyone from time to time has an interest in entering into a variety of investments with the aim of earning income from their home or comfort as long as they do not have to go through an inefficient employment system. This is the result of technological developments around, and to achieve this, many fall victim to con artists who promise a platform to get a comfortable income. Today I will introduce the ICO IQ cash project, one of the PLATFORM THAT ALLOWS YOU TO GET IN YOUR COMFORT.
What is IQ cash
IQ Cash is a cryptocurrency that may be used to run and increase further exposure to what has been offered. Making it is to remove from where to stop because it has been made and decided to go further because it was not possible. IQ can be used to get a place that has to be part of this trend, even if we are looking for an open place where investors can do the same with other investors. The aim is to give everyone not agreement about most and at least ROI in 300% or more of you in passive form. The IQCash company is truly unique because it will allow users to get the maximum return on investment. IQ cash is a company that will be able to combine the best and most perfect opportunities to lead exchanges in the cryptocurrency market. With IQ network Masternode you can avoid a variety of situations, problems, and unusual problems, and such a process will eliminate any deficiencies. The IQCash platform is also suitable for traders who already have experience in their activities, and of course for novice traders who have just entered the door of buying and selling crypto. No one will experience problems, everyone will only admire sales using IQCash. Learn more — http://iq.cash.
Why I chose to take a position on IQ. Cash?
Because there are many kinds of benefits for investors. except for profits up to 300%, I will be able to introduce all profits to investors. 1. Security Cryptocurrency now has a variant of active users in the world and also the number is growing rapidly! User accounts cannot be blocked, and funds cannot be accessed by anyone but the owner. 2.MASTERNODE Iq. Cash uses the consensus of the PoW algorithm with the support of the Masternode system. This makes the project economically attractive to mine 43% and provides 57% of passive income for Masternode holders. Masternode provides network integrity, transaction anonymity, and transaction speed. ways to get Masternode: You must take the position of 3000 IQ. 3. ANONIMITY The anonymity of transactions in the system is provided by the PrivateSend algorithm. Users can trust the system completely. they don’t need to worry about third-party access to data because the system encrypts data securely when transferring and receiving assets. 4. ASIC RESISTANCE Technology that solves problems accelerates the expansion of network complexity significantly when using ASIC (compared to CPU usage). IQ Cash Network uses the NeoScrypt algorithm to solve this problem. 5. TRANSACTION speed High-speed transactions are guaranteed by InstantSend data exchange across networks. The transaction time is about 5 seconds. 6. IQ Network decentralized. Cash implies weaknesses to create sites that combine the dominant influence on other network members. Effects on coins that are excluded due to their release are prohibited, and extra emission is not provided.
Buy 3,000 IQ or better 3001 because 1 is spent on commission transactions.
Download the Files application (Android or iOS) for mobile devices Open IQ. Cash Coin Purses in the application.
Enter 3,001 IQ in the wallet and create a MasterNode server and deposit. Pay for hosting service providers on Flits.
You will be charged EUR 1.99 per month, get profit and spend on your needs or create the next MasterNode to extend profits in line with the number of MasterNode!
How do I buy cash IQ
Go to the acquisition page and you will see an open window where you will pay the amount of coins you want to shop for. You don’t need to worry about the next steps because we will arrange the rest by buying IQ coins. Cash and FLS (to close Flits services) from the exchange.
Fill in «IQ wallet address» and «FLS wallet address» in the Flits application.
get a package. One package includes 3000 IQ. Cash and Bitcoin services for Flits for five months. When the cash transfer is complete, open the IQ-MasterNode window and make it comparable to the coins purchased (3000 IQ for 1 MasterNode).
activate MasterNode and get profit. You will follow the current exchange rate on the Flits application or with any crypto trading coins.
Wallets and Exchanges:
The IQ cryptocurrency wallet is available on all three Windows, Mac and Linux platforms.
• Algorithm: PoW, NeoScrypt (ASIC resistance) • Block time: 120 seconds • Prizes per block: 25 IQ • Block Block Reward Distribution: 57% to Masternodes and 43% to Miners, both taken from the formula (Reward-6%), where 6% is reserved for the DAO system • Block rewards can be sliced 12% every year • Max coins: 56 900,000 IQ • Premine: 7 900 000 IQ • Mining within 25 years
IQ.cash has studied the crypto market well enough to draw the model. This uses the mining system and MasterNode. The mining protocol will attract contributors exponentially while MasterNode will help ensure network speed, governance, and sustainability. Because MasterNode is also a cryptocurrency node, becoming a MasterNode on the IQ.cash system requires an investment commitment. This is a way to make a profit in this system. Investment is rewarded with a commission for each trade made by the system. This will help ensure that enough users try to become a MasterNode and thus make a profit without having to leave the comfort of their home.
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Bitcoin Trading for Beginners (A Guide in Plain English ...
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